1851-1860 - History

1851-1860 - History

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1851-1860 Europe Immigration

1851-1860 - History

[Compiled from Parliamentary Papers 1852-3, 1863 and 1873. Added by Marjie Bloy Ph.D., Senior Research Fellow, National University of Singapore.]

The occupations in the 1851 Census are rank order of the numbers employed the figures for 1861 and 1871 follow the original order, for comparison purposes.

Some occupations are re-named, others are put into different categories over this thirty year period some occupations did disappear.

Some new occupations appear: these have been added to the end of the lists


1851-1860 - History

Chowan County, North Carolina

Genealogy and History
Volunteers Dedicated to Free Genealogy

Abstract of Marriage Bonds
1851 - 1860

From originals in office of the Clerk of the Superior Court at Edenton, North Carolina

Bunch, James E. and Elizabeth White. Feb. 3. Thos. J. White.
Bryant, Lewis and Harriet Corbett. Apl. 23. Jno. Newborn.
Bateman, Andrew J. and Elizabeth Beasley. July 7.
Bunch, William and Christian Goodwin. Sept. 30. Fred'k Bunch.
Brinkley, Myles C. and Mary E. Goodwin: Dec. 13.
Bush, Elisha T. and Sarah M. Bush. Dec. 19. Jere Evans
Douglas, William and Sarah Ann Goodman. May 2. W. H. Wilder.
Eason, George and Mary Copeland. Feb'y 18. Thos. HollowelL
Evans, Albert and Mary Ann Elliott. Mch. 26. Jos. S. Cannon.
Elliott, Vachel and Lydia Elliott. Aug. 20. Jos. B. Thach.
Goodman, James and Sarah Fife. July 17. Elliott Floyd.
Harris, Francis and Ann Bateman. Jan'y 16. Nath'l Bunch.
Harrell, Wm. B. and Ann J. Battle. Mch 3. H. Simpson.
Haste, Abner and Mary Jones. Nov. 6. Wm Previtt, Jr.
Hollowell, Wm. and Christian Boyce. Dec. 9. Ephraim Bunch.
Jordan Norflect and Nancy Jane Boyce. Jan. 21. Baker Boyce.
Jordan, Thomas M. and Mary Boyce. Oct. 29.
Lane, Jesse and Margaret Jordan. Sept. 4. Wm. N. Pearce.
Newborn, Hunter and Penelope Hews. Apl. 2. W. H. Wilder.
Pratt, Nathan and Mary Walker. Feb'y 7. Charlton Sitterson.
Phelps, Leonard and Jane Kail. Jan'y 14. J. W. Hathaway.
Perry, John and Elizabeth Nixon. July 6. Myles Ashley.
Rice, Freeman and Sarah Smith. Jan'y 21. James Bass.
Skinner, William and Peninah Dail. Aug. 7. Wm. Bratton.
Spivey, Timothy and Zillah Blanchard. Sept. 19. R. H. Tooly.
Steele, John and Eliza Boyce. Dec. 10. Francis Byrum.
Skinner, Joshua C. and Mary U. Leary. Dec. 15. E. C. Hines.
Taylor, Joseph and Lucinda Speight. Feb. 5. Job Skinner.
Ward, Quinton and Margaret Forehand. Nov. 12.
Ward, Andrew and Miley Forehand. Dec. 20. Wrighton Ward.
Byrum, James and Elizabeth. Jan'y 8. Francis Byrum.
Boyce, William and Elizabeth . Jan. 12. Amos Perrv.
Culpeper, Thomas and Emily W. Rafferty. Feb. 5.
Chappell, Isaac B. and Eliza Mitchell. Feb'y 19.
Copeland Phoenas and Jane E. Lane. Feb'y 23. Wm. D. White,
Dail, Henry and Elizabeth Ashley. Mch. 2. Jos. Asbill, Jr.
Goodwin, John and Aehsia Halsey. Jan'y 22, Timothy Mitchell.
Chaplin, William G. and Martha Skinner. July 1.
Goodwin, Exum and Priscilla Bunch. Oct. 9. Wm. Bunch.
Hill, James W. and Mary Blanchard. Jan. 21. Jas. R. Darden.
Hollowell, Jordan and Mary Parish. Feb. 23.
Hendricks, Thomas and Esther Bagley. May 8. Wm. Spruell.
Hollowell, Luke and Eliz Forehand. July 22. Ephraim Bunch.
Harris, Josiah and Ellen Byrum. Sept. 9. Jesse Bunch.
Kennedy, William J. and Mrs. Eliza M. Clark.
Lane, Elisha and Janette Chappell. Jan. 6. Francis Smith.
Lane, Samuel C. and Mary Ann R. Lane. Feb'y 4.
Lashley, John T. and Martha White. Mch. 31. Jos. G. Godfrey.
Myers, Henry and Lavinia Smith. Sept. 22. Micajah Bunch.
Persse, Anthony B. and Margaret Dean. Nov. 25.
Rea, Wiley W. and Mary L. Noxon. July 15.
Stullifer, Rufus and Ritta Owens. Jan'y 6. Chas. Smith.
Sitterson, Alfred and Frances A. Allen. May 27. Jos. S. Jones.
Skinner, John and Lavinia W. Skinner. Nov. 2.
Wilson, William and Eliza Harrell. Feb. 5. Jno. H. Jones.
Wilson, Henry and Elizabeth Copeland. Feb'y 5. Moees Hobbs.
Boyce, Henry and Priscilla Griffin. Feb. 21. Jesse J. Griffin.
Chappell, Jonathan and Mary Elizabeth Roberts. Feb'y 2.
Evans, Jeremiah and Agathy Ann Trotman. Mch. 19.
Edwards, Rev. F. M. and Francis L. Bland. Dec. 21.
Gregory, Thomas and Elizabeth Hoskins. Mch. 16.
Goodwin, John E. and Mary Ann Perry. Apl. 4. C. E. Robinson.
Harris, Abram and Lydia Jones. Mch. 24. Wm. Bunch.
Harrell, John Wilson and Mary Haughton. Nov. 9.
Hobbs, Hamilton and Lydia Byrum. Aug. 10. Starkey B. Evans.
Hollowell, Quinton and Martha Ann Roberts. Jan'y 19.
Jones, Henderson and Mary Savage. June 8. Jesse Bunch.
Jones Whitmell and Margaret Bird. July 20. Jas. Wilson.
Kenedy, William and Margaret White. Mch. 30. C. C. Rea.
Morris, Miles and Louisa Lane. Mch. 9. F. E. Simpson.
Munds, William and Apphia Jordan. Feb. 9. Wm. N. Pearce.
Norcom, Abner and Margaret Hoskin6. Oct. 12. Jas. Norcom.
Owens, Henry and Milly Jordan. Mch. 18. Jno. W. Cullifer.
Parker, Seth B. and Emily Hobbs. May 25. Isaac Moran.
Perry, John A. and Elizabeth Bond. Feb. 21. Ohas. Smith.
Smith, Stephen and Nancy Harris. May 3. Phenias Copeland.
Spruell, T. C. and Elizabeth Wynn. June 7. Jos. S. Jones.
Simpson, Newton A. and Deborah Norcom. Dec. 7. J. S. Jones.
Selden, John A., Jr., and Penelope L. Benbury. Nov. 15.
Williams, Willis A. and Harriet P. Leary. Dec. 13.
Womble, Thos. J. and Sarah F. Best. May 5. J. G. Godfrey.
White, Jesse and Sarah Bovce. Jan'y 5. Jas. N. Floyd.
Cullens, Nathan L. and Mary Benbury. May 4. J. S. Jones.
Copeland and Rachel Jordan. Oct. 25. Tim Copeland.
Elliott, A. R. and Juliana B. Harvey. Feb. 13. Wm. C. Wood.
Hedricks, Wm. S. and Martha Pratt. Jan'y 17. E. A. Morris.
Nowell, Jos. W. and Harriet E. Cannon. Feb. 23. B. F. Welch.
Parish, Alfred and Mary Hedrick. Mch. 14. Benj. Jones.
Peters, Stephen T. and Jane Warren. June 22. Edward Warfen.
Saunders, Calvin and Martha Bunch. Feb'y 25.
Sitterson, Alfred S. and Sarah A. Sitterson. Apl. 13.
Syme, John and Ann Cornelia De Coin. Oct. 11. Rich'd Paxton.
Wilder, Thomas C. and Mary E. Bockover. Feb'y 9.
Whitmore, D. T. and Mrs. Elizabeth J. Jordan. June 14.
W'iUiams, John B. and Elizabeth Byrum. July 21.
Asbill, Elisha and Martha Ann Asbill. Jan'y 3. Jno. B. Wright.
Asbill, James and Hopsabeth Bovce. June 8. Baker F. Boyce.
Boyce, William and Hannah Dail. May 21. Julius Dail.
Burrows, Briant and Nancy Jones. May 25. Freeman Rice.
Bunch, Jesse and Sophia Jones. June 6. Wm. Perry.
Bunch, Lemuel and Mary Jones. July 9. C. E. Robinson.
Blount, William C. and Penelope Chambers. July 19.
Byrum, William and Martha Jane Harrell. Oct. 23. Wm. Perry.
Boyce, Thomas and Sophia Williams. Dec. 26. Jesse J. Griffin.
Floyd, Jeremiah and Miriam Bunch. Apl. 26. N. S. Perkins.
Gas'kins, Wm. A. arid Lydia L. Bunch. Jan'y 22. P. F. White.
Green, Samuel and Mary Evans. Jan'y 25. Qiiinton Hollowell.
Hobbs, Quinton and Elvy Ward. Oct. 25. George Eason.
Jordan, Nathan C. and Sarah Frances Walton . Nov. 28.
Jennings, John and Ellon McCoy. July 25. J. A. Woodard.
Jollie, H. G. and Margaret B. Lowther. Sept. 6. Wm. Norcom.
Jordan, William H. and Jane Lane. Sept. 19. J. N. Floyd.
Mitchell, Timothy and Ann Eliza Trotman. Apl. 24.
Miller, Augustine and Penelope Smith. Sept . 11.
Moore, Nath'l H. and Mary O'M. Bruer. Dec. 5.
Miller, Jonathan and Miley Todd. Dec. 26. Albert G. Jones.
Starnes, James W. and Sarah Ann Lane. June 16.
Winslow Reuben and Elizabeth Winslow. Jan. 13.
Welch, Drew and Eliza Ward. Oct. 16. Daniel N. Ward.
Bateman, Hamilton C. and Harriet Whitmore. Feb'y 26.
Burke, Richard C. and Sarah F. Small. Sept. 23. Moses Burke.
Blanchard, Josiah and Martha Winslow. Nov. 3.
Brinkley, Martin L. and Elizabeth A. Blanchard. Dec. 2.
Chappell, Harvey and Mary Simpson. Feb. 7.
Copeland, Joseph and Elizabeth Winslow. Dec. 23.
Clements, William and Mary Sansberry. Nov. 11. R. S. Pratt.
Daniel, Watson L. and Priscilla A. Gregory. Oct. 13.
Halsey, Samuel and Maria Ann Halsey. Oct. 31.
Harrell, Jno. H. and Elizabeth Smith. Dec. 30.
Jackson, Jos. C. and Mary Jane Taylor. Sept. 27. S. W. Taylor
Lane, Henry and Elizabeth Miller/ July 9. Tim Coffield.
Overman, Joseph and Melissa Griffin. Feb'y 26.
Parker, N. N. and Sarah Webb.. April 17. Levi Thorne.
Roberts, Stephen W. and Elizabeth N. Haynes. Apl. 28.
Righton, Stark A. and Susan A. Moore. Nov. 19. E. C. Hines.
Small, Richard and Jane Small. June 10. Jno. C. Badham.
Spence, Mark B. and Emily Ann Simpson. Sept. 8.
Taylor, Sam'l W. and Sarah F. Leary. July 8. James McCoy.
Wilson, Thomas and Nancy E. Bass. Nov. 3. Jesse Bunch.
White, Henry H. and Alethia Gaskins. Nov. 12.
Winslow, William H. and Media Ann Harrell. Dec. 4.
White, Jordan and Virginia Williams. Dec. 9. Wm. M. Ward.
Welch, Baker F. and Sarah M. Simpson. Dec. 9.
Wright, John B. and Corisand Bunch. Dec. 30. John J. Bunch.
Bunch, Perry and Martha Williams. March 1. Elliott Floyd.
Byrum, Wm. C. and Tamar Ward. May 16. Isaac Bymm.
Bond, Alex H. and Sarah R. Simpson. May 23. A. W. Clayton.
Bunch, Nehemiah and Lucretia Ellis. July 21. Perrv Bunch.
Bush, John J. and Ann Wright. Oct, 12.' Eiisha T.' Bush.
Bond, R. H. L. and Annie A. Hoskins. Sept. 27. T. W. Hudgins.
Coke, Dr. Geo. H. and Caroline Skinner. Dec, 10.
Coffield, Martin and Rachel Bufkin. Dec, 21. Edwin Byrum.
Churchill, Ephraim and Harriet Ann Roberts. Dec. 22.
Dempsey, Elijah and Sally White. Jan'y 12. Simon Cullifer.
Dail, Jos. B. and Sarah Hunter. Nov. 2. A. S. Sutton.
Elliott, Ameziah and Jane Jordan. June 18. Thos. Jordan.
Green, Sam'l and Mary Evans. Jan'y 25.
Galloway, George W. and Mattie L. Mixon. Nov. 12.
Hilliurd, Rev. F. W. and Maria A. Johnston. May 6.
Haughton, Malachi and Mary Carter. May 27. Benj. K. Bullock.
Jones, John M., Jr. and Mary Bass. May 27. Wm. Morriss.
Leary, West R. and Jane E. Saterfield. Jan. 13. W. H. Bonner.
Myers, Alex W. and Harriet Miller. Jan'y 27. D. McDonald.
Mardre. Joseph and Joice V. Small. Apl. 28. W. J. Kennedy.
Norcom, William, and Mrs. Pamelia Hankins. Nov. 12.
Pratt, Robert S. and Laura Woodward. June 27. Jos. Moran.
Rogerson, Abel and Ellon Harrell. Aug. 12.
Rogerson, Matthew and Susan G. Long. Dec. 15. J. W. Rogerson.
Satterfield, John B. and Celia A. Leary. Jan'y 13.
Smith Jesse and Penelope Bratton. June 11. Wm. Privitt.
Spivey, Jesse and Leah Ward. Nov. 7. Jacob Spivey.
Skinner, Henry H. and Agnes L. Harvey. Dec. 8. A. R. Elliott.
Thompson, William and Sarah E. Paine. May 6.
Warren, Dr. Edward and Elizabeth 0. Johnston. Nov. 13.
White, Joseph and Mary Berryman. Dec. 28. Allen Spivey.
Asbill, James and Sarah E. Boyce. Sept. 15. Jacob Jordan.
Boushall, M. S. and Sarah A. Welch. Sept. 21. Dorsey Welch.
Bass, John L. and Penelope Harrell. Oct. 6. Jos. Moran.
Boyce, Jacob D. and Sarah Jane Ward. Oct. 15.
Badham, William, Jr., and Louisa Jones. Dec. 13.
Brinn and Judy A. Forehand. Dec. 21. Jos. E. Byrum.
Creeev, Aug. R. and Mary Piercey. Mch 18. John Smith.
Cheshire, Alex, Jr., and Charlotte Burton. June 7.
Evans, Benj. L. and Clarissa Coffield. Feb. 23. Z. Evans.
Eggleston, Thomas W. and Sally Ann Cannon. Dec. 20.
Fleetwood, Geo. B. and Harriet Burke. Aug. 10. John Elliott.
Hurdle Washington and Elizabeth Smith. July 21.
Hollowell, Joel B. and Amelia Ann Goodwin. Oct. 22.
Harris, lrvin A. and Mary E. Dolby. Nov. 1. John Ooffield.
Hobbs, Henry C. and Susan A. Eason. Nov. 30. Jos. S. Jones.
Hobbs, Alfred and Frances Bunch. Dec. 9. Ephraim Bunch.
Jordan, Jamieson and Elizabeth Parker. Jan. 20. Wm. Privitt.
Jones, Alexander and Martint Goodman. Apl. 2.
Johnston, James O, Jr., and Kate H. Warren. June 7.
Jones John B. and Missouri Savage. Dec. 11. Geo. Bond.
Jordan, Jacob and Sarah Elizabeth Forehand. Dec. 17.
Lane, Samuel and Elizabeth Small. Oct. 20. C. E. Robinson.
Long, John and Mary A. Manning. Oct. 26. Jno. L. Bratten.
Leary, West R. and Adaline Smith. Dec. 25. Wm. Perry.
Mardre, Joseph, Jr. and Sarah P. Learv. June 28.
Mitchell, R. G. and Sarah H. Cheshire. June 29. F. W. Bond.
Nowell, John W. and Esther P. White. Mch. 31.
Newbern E. and Margaret Robinson. Oct. 20. C. E. Robinson.
Nixon, William and Eliza Miller. Dec. 21. J no. L. Broughton.
Parker, Thomas J. and Margaret Ann Smith. Jan'y 27.
Smith, William and Emma Jane Parker. Mch. 4. John Smith.
Smith, John and Charity Ward. May 26. Isaac Moran.
Sutton, Seth S. and Virginia C. Eshon. Dec. 16.
Thompson, Thomas and Elizabeth N. Anderson. Dec. 14.
Winslow, Valentine and Clarissa Ward. Mch 23.
Williams, J. D. and Eliz M. Bateman. Mch. 21. W. E. Bond.
Woodward, Richard and Mrs. Ellen Long. June 7. J. N. Floyd.
Aumack, Sam'l M. and Margaret J. Gregory. June 20.
Ashley, Allen and Mary Harrell. Aug. 11. Thos. L. Foxwell.
Boyce, Zach and Mary Louisa Dail. Jan'y 1. Isaiah Dail.
Boyce, Thomas M. and Sarah E. Jordan. Feb'y 11.
Baker, Joseph and Armesia Ward. March 1. Edward Perry.
Bunch, Collen and Mary J. Evans. May 3. .las. E. Evans.
Boyce, Wm. F. and Mary Ann Bunch. Sept. 25. Geo. F. Byrum.
Bass, Quinton and Mary Jane Smith. Oct. 13. Exum Goodwin.
Bogue, Joseph and Caroline Nixon. Dec. 19. Jesse Parker.
Cope-land, Elisha and Mary Jane Winslow. April 5.
Copeland, Timothy and Eliz Ann Coffield. Ocr. 15.
Davenport, Chas.and Lvdia Wynne. Jan. 27. P. F. White.
Dail, Joseph and .lane Barker. May. 31. Join: W. Brinn.
Dail, Charles and Charity Bunch. Sept. 9. J as. W. Garrett,
Etheridge, Jos. W. and Martha Jane Brinkley. Jan'y 7.
Evans, Jacob E. and Charlotte Byrum. July 20. Henry Evans.
Evans, Thomas and Esther Ann Goodwin. Nov. 2.
Evans, Josiah and Elizabeth Jordan. Dec. 3. Thos. Evans.
Forehand, Thomas and Sarah Byrum. July 26.
Forehand, Ephraim and Lucretia Boyce. Aug. :. Isaiah Dail
Guiles, John and Sarah Griffin. May 21. Silas White.
Hollowell, John and Martha I. Saunders. Dec 21.
Jordan, Hance and Elizabeth Mitchell. Mch. 30. Jas. Jordan.
Lane, Joshua and Marv P. Munds. Dec. 28. Ilarvev Smith.
Outlaw, Wm. D. and Absilla M. Twine. Jan'y 23. Elbert Twine.
Pugh, James and Anna Mariah Vanhoosen. Feb'y 24.
Perry, William and Sally Ann Parish. Feb'y 28.
Privett, Sam'l and Eliz M. Evans. Dec. 27. Jas. E. Evans.
Robinson, Wm. T. and Ann E. Rogerson. Jan'v 11. W. J. Hill.
Swank, N. M. and Harriet S. Carter. Jan'y 1st.
Simpson, John R. and Elizabeth Ann Norcom. Feb'y 8.
Sharp, John and Anna Maria Simpson. Mch. 19. J. N. Floyd.
Sutton, Stark A. and Henrietta Moore. May 31.
Shannonhouse, W. R. and Adelaide Thach. Aug. 16.
Worselev, James A. and Mary A. E. Ming. Feb'v 10.
Waff, William W. and Anna Wright. Mch 1st. Jos. T. Waff.
Weston, B. F. and E. A. Whitmore. June 2. Joel Hyman.
Blount, William C. and Penelope M. Leary. T. P. Smith.
Bunch, Wm. N. and Susan M. Brinkley. Feb'v 13.
Bunch, Jas. L., Dr. and Martha A. Norcom. Apl. 17.
Boushall, Benj. F. and Mrs. Adaline J. Henry. May 9.
Bunch, Jos. E. and Marina Ward. May 14. John J. Bush.
Barclift, Dempsey and Mary A. Simpson. Aug. 6.
Brinn, Stephen R. and Julia Elliott. Dec. 17. Jos. Brinn, Jr.
Copeland, Andrew and Anna Maria Jordan. Oct. 18.
Duke, James H. and Betty V. Lawrence. Aug. 21.
Evans, Henry and Catharine N. Byrum. Apl. 21.
Forehand, Adam and Mary F. Smith. July 12. B. F. Boyce.
Gilliam, Julian and Elizabeth Hoskins. Dec. 12. Geo. Gilliam.
Goodwin, Amariah and Miley Britt. Dec. 13. Sam'l Bateman.
Haste, Abner and Nancy Burrows. Jan. 28. Jacob R. Privitt.
Harrell, Josiah and Mary Jane Halsey. Sept. I8. M. Bunch.
Harrell, Wm. H. and Margaret Boyce. Oct. 10. Henry Morgan.
Hobbs, Thomas and Lydia Byrum. Oct. 31. Gideon Byrum.
Hurdle, Wm. B. and Priscilla M. Goodwin. Nov. 27.
Johnson, Edwin and Catharine Ward. Aug. 27.
Johnson, Thomas L. and Martha Hall. Dec. 18. Wm. G. Britt.
Munds, Jefferson and Rhoda Jane Smith. Mch. 19.
Northcott, Jos. A. and Emily A. Simpson. Dec. 10.
Peterson, Rev. E. M. and Ellen B. Skinner. Jan'y 3.
Peel, George and Virginia Burton. Oct. 31. Chas. Leary.
Peel, Joseph and Henrietta Liles. June 4. Jas. Smith.
Parish, Wm. E. and Ellen A. Bond. Dec. 29. J. D. Parish.
Rogerson, Jesse W. and Martha Bland. Aug. 13. J. M. Jones, Jr.
Richardson B. A. and Lavinia P. Smith. Nov. 21. Jas. H. Bell.
Small, Baker D. and Mary E. Smith. Jan'y 7. Jacob R. Privett.
Sutton, LaFayette and Sarah J. Thatch. Mch. 5. T. J. Knapp.
Skinner, Thomas and Mary E. Starnes. Mch. 14. Wm. S. Smith.
Summerell, Dr. Thos. D. and Elizabeth J. Skinner. Dec. 12.
Tilton. John H. and Sarah E. Hosier. Feb'y 27. Allen Brown.
Todd, Bryant and Martha J. Miller. July 4. Jas. Bonner.
Thatch, Henry C. and Eliza Bunch. July 15. Jas. D. Wynn.
Ward, Wm. M. and Harriet E. Hollowell. Feb'y 6. Silas White.
Wright, Townsand and Margaret Harrell. Feb'y 16. Jos. Moran.

(Source: North Carolina Historical and Genealogical Register, Vol II, Publ. Jan 1901. Transcribed by Andrea Stawski Pack)

1851-1860 - History

The steamer E.K. Collins burned in the Detroit river, a short distance below Malden, on the night of October 8. Ten passengers and thirteen of the crew perished in the flames or were drowned in the river. The E.K. Collins was a new steamer, owned by the Wards, of Detroit, and had come out the previous autumn at Newport, now Marine City. She was bound from the Sault for Cleveland. The fire originated on the boiler deck, and was supposed to have been caused by the steerage passengers emptying their pipes, filled with burning tobacco in the light wood work of the deck. It spread with great rapidity. The fire engines were in readiness, the hose was quickly screwed on, but the smoke and fire drove every person from the engines. Within two minutes, it was stated, the whole boat was aflame. An attempt was made to launch the lifeboats, but the flames forbade. There was an abundance of life preservers and floats, but in their fright many persons jumped into the river without any support. The vessel was turned toward the shore, and her headway beached her. There she burned to the water's edge. The propeller Fintry, Captain Langley, arrived at a timely moment and saved a number who were struggling in the water. The Collins had 24 passengers aboard, and her crew numbered 43. She cost $103,000.

There were 384 disasters during the navigation of 1854, with a valuation of property lost amounting to $2,187,825.

Gradual Change in Lake Craft. - There were in 1854 few side-wheel steamers on the lakes in comparison with former times, while the class of vessels known as barks and brigs had almost entirely passed out, and were known only in history. Propellers in the meantime had largely increased, and were doing the great bulk of freighting business on the lakes, being better adapted for that service.

Chicago Harbor Dredged. - The Chicago harbor was dredged during the season to 12 feet, deep enough for the safe passage of any sail vessel not more than 800 tons, and any steamer not over 1,500 tons, which placed it in better condition than for the past ten years. At this time Chicago had no lifeboat, but was obliged to depend, in the time of storm, when vessels were grounded on the bar and the lives of the crews in peril, upon such boats as steamers or propellers then in the harbor might be able to send out.

Other Events of 1854 - Navigation commenced at Buffalo April 2, the steamer Buckeye State, Capt. Jacob Imson, being the first to depart, and the straits of Mackinac opened April 25, the brig Globe being the first to pass through, bound west. April 18: Propeller Forest Queen ashore near Thunder Bay schooner Samuel Strong damaged by lightning on Lake Michigan 29, propeller Paugassett ashore near Grand River. May 1: The following boats wrecked on Lake Michigan: Olive Richmond, Rocky Mountain, Merchant, Arrow, P. Hayden, Lizzie Throop and Maine. May: Schooner Tom Corwin sunk by collision with the piers at Cleveland brig Globe damaged by lightning at Chicago contract for making the "straight cut" at Milwaukee let for $48,000 schooner Buttles sunk in Detroit river steamer Garden City wrecked on a reef near Mackinac propeller H.A. Kent burned on Lake Erie cargo valued at $200,000 steamer Detroit sunk in Saginaw bay by collision with the brig Nucleus. June: Scow Juno sunk at Cleveland. Schooner Australia damaged by lightning near Turtle island. July 29: Schooner Lapwing goes ashore near St. Joseph propeller Boston sunk by collision off Oak Orchard. August: Steamer Alabama sunk near Buffalo. Steamer Lady Elgin sunk at the pier at Manitowoc. September: Schooner Navigator sunk at Michigan Harbor schooner E.C. Williams sunk by collision with the Western World at Buffalo 19, schooner Isabella ashore near Dunkirk 28, schooner A. Buckingham ashore at Long Point 23, steamer Lady Elgin and the Baltic ashore at the Flats steamer Saratoga sold as she lay sunk in the harbor at Port Burwell, Canada, to William H. Scott for $4,000. October 1: Propeller Westmoreland ashore at Windmill Point propeller Troy damaged by explosion of her boiler near Chicago steamer Fashion sunk at Kewaunee 8, steamer E.K. Collins burned at Malden, owned by Capt. E.B. Ward 10, bark France ashore near Goderich bark Fame wrecked on Lake Huron schooner W.W. Brigham sunk in Dunkirk harbor schooner Ocean burned at Port Dalhousie schooner Alwilda burned 22, schooner Virginia Purdy ashore at Milwaukee schooner Waterwitch ashore at Kincardine schooner Defiance sunk by collision with brig Audubon near Port aux Barques. November: Schooner Mary Margaret capsized off Milwaukee crew rescued by the schooner Magic. Propeller Bucephalus sunk in Saginaw bay ten lives lost. Schooner Little Belle ashore at Grand River, Canada. British bark Globe ashore at Port Burwell. Schooners Wm. Black and Forwarder ashore at Port Burwell. Schooner Josephine Lawrence sunk in Detroit river. Propeller Saginaw on the rocks at Gilbraltar. The O.Q. Melzar ashore near Shushwaw point. Propeller Edith collides with the schooner Charley Hibbard off Long Point. Brig Northampton ashore total loss at Thunder Bay. Schooners Lizzie Throop, Twin Brothers, Ino and Ellen Stewart ashore near Grand River. Bark Utica sunk at Buffalo. Steamer May Queen collides with the Wm. Buckley on Lake Erie, resulting in sinking the latter. Steamer Mayflower wrecked on a reef near Point Pelee loss $40,000. December: Over 50 vessels aground at the St. Clair flats. Schooner Omah, laden with salt, wrecked at Cleveland three lives lost. Bark Wm. Sturgess ashore at Black River. Propeller Paugassett sunk at Cleveland from injuries sustained while rescuing the crew of the Omah. Schooner Virginia ashore near the Omah. Steamer Fremont frozen in at Sandusky bay. Schooner Ireland, aground near Windmill point, goes to pieces. Schooner Florence wrecked near Kelley's island. Schooner Franklin Pierce wrecked near Duck Pond. Steamer Albion frozen in at the mouth of Clinton river. Schooner Suffolk ashore near Port Burwell. Propeller Westmoreland sunk near Sleeping Bear, Lake Michigan 17 lives lost. Schooner Western Star wrecked near Goderich, Ontario.

Other Disasters of the Season. - The following steamers and sail vessels passed out of existence in 1854: Steamer America wrecked at Point Pelee, Lake Erie steamer Garden City wrecked near Detour, Lake Erie steamer Detroit sunk by bark Nucleus in Saginaw bay steamer General Harrison wrecked near Chicago.

The schooner K. R. Johnson, laden with wheat, foundered with all hands off Fairport. Captain Snell, who commanded her, was seen in the rigging by his wife on shore, waving his coat, but finally fell off in sight of home and friends, and was drowned. The vessel was owned by Solomon Snell, brother of the captain the schooner Ontario, with 200 tons of merchandise, was wrecked on Nicholas island, Lake Ontario steamer Alabama sprung a leak and sunk near Buffalo steamer E.H. Collins burned at the mouth of Detroit river with loss of 23 lives steamer Bruce Mines foundered in Lake Huron steamer Mayflower wrecked on Point Pelee propeller Princeton sunk by ice off Gravelly Bay, Lake Erie propeller H.A. Kent burned off Gravelly Bay, Lake Erie propeller Boston sunk by collision in Lake Ontario propeller Bucephalus foundered in Saginaw bay, ten lives lost propeller International burned a the head of the Niagara river propeller Westmoreland foundered near the Manitous, seventeen lives lost bark Utica wrecked on Buffalo breakwater bark Trade Wind sunk by brig Sir C. Napier in Lake Erie bark Globe (C) wrecked at Point Bruce, Lake Erie brig O. Richmond wrecked near Chicago brig Wm. Monteith wrecked at Fairport brig Audubon sunk by schooner Difiance in Lake Huron brig Ashland wrecked on Long Point, Lake Erie brig Burlington wrecked at Port Bruce, Lake Erie brig Odd Fellow wrecked near Mackinaw brig Halifax wrecked on Lake Ontario Adelia foundered in Lake Ontario with loss of five lives. The following named were all schooners: Robert Wood lost off Dunkirk, Lake Erie Petrel lost on Lake Michigan, with four lives Duke sunk in Lake Ontario and four lives lost Hudson sunk off Conneaut, Lake Erie Navigator wrecked near St. Joseph, Lake Michigan Roanoke wrecked near Muskegon, Lake Michigan and four lives lost Nautilus wrecked near Chicago Sophia wrecked in Georgian Bay Energy wrecked in Traverse bay J.B. Wright wrecked on east shore of Lake Michigan Ocean burned at Port Dalhousie, Lake Ontario Defiance sunk by brig Audubon in Lake Huron Cayuga wrecked on Lake Ontario Western Star wrecked near Goderich, Ont. Luther Wright wrecked at Gravelly Bay Norfolk wrecked on Lake Ontario with two lives Ocean wrecked at Cleveland, four lives lost Birmingham wrecked near Buffalo R.R. Johnson wrecked at Fairport, eight lives lost Conductor wrecked at Long Point Lewis Cass wrecked at Conneaut Wing and Wing wrecked at Michigan City Convoy foundered in Lake Erie and eight lives lost Florence wrecked at Kelley's island Mansfield wrecked at Euclid, Lake Erie Mary Margaret wrecked on Lake Michigan.

Of the 384 disasters in 1854 one occurred in January, 46 in April, 25 in May, 11 in June, 14 in July, 21 in August, 58 in September, 61 in October, 83 in November and 64 in December. Eight steamers, six propellers, three barks, eight brigs and 30 schooners passed out of existence during the season. Owing to the sudden closing up of the season a number of vessels, with cargoes on board, were frozen up outside, sustaining more or less damages, which could not at that time be included in the above amount. The season closed December 10 number of lives lost during the year, 119 amount of loss by jettison, $78,550 loss by collision, $270,000 loss by fire, $264,000 total loss of property by steamboats, $1,143,500 loss of property by sail vessels, $1,046,325.

Some of the transcription work was also done by Brendon Baillod, who maintains an excellent guide to Great Lakes Shipwreck Research.

Journey to Freedom

Beginning in the 17th century and continuing through the mid-19th century in the United States, enslaved African Americans resisted bondage to gain their freedom through acts of self-emancipation. The individuals who sought this freedom from enslavement, known as freedom seekers, and those who assisted along the way, united together to become what is known as the Underground Railroad. The National Park Service and members of the Network to Freedom tell these stories of escape to demonstrate the significance of the Underground Railroad in the eradication of slavery as a cornerstone of the national civil rights movement.

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Timeline: 1861 to 1870

1861 Tsar Alexander II issues his proclamation emancipating Russia's serfs.

1861 Abraham Lincoln takes office as the President of the United States. He tries to reassure southern states, announcing that he does not intend to interfere, directly or indirectly, with the institution of slavery. But southern politicians have allowed themselves exaggerations and panic. Some southern states proclaim secession. Shooting erupts in the South over who will possess federal forts.

1861 Whale oil has been the primary fuel for lamps. In Pennsylvania an oil well has begun producing more than 3,000 barrels per day, and oil refining has begun, producing an alternative fuel for lamps. In the US Civil War, the Union is using whaling ships for naval blockades, contributing to the decline in whaling.

1861 China's Manchu emperor, Xianfeng, has been weakened by debauchery and drugs and dies at the age of thirty. The son of his consort succeeds him. The former consort, Cixi, becomes the boy's regent and acquires the title Dowager Empress.

1861 (Oct 24) Telegraphy connects the west coast of United States to the east coast. Telegraphy is detaching communication from its dependency on transportation. A communications revolution has been underway. It brings an end to the Pony Express.

1861 In Germany, workers making mirrors have lost all of their teeth. A professor of medicine discovers they are victims of mercury poisoning. His findings lead to government regulations requiring alternative mirror making processes.

1861 In Britain a government commission begins to investigate non-textile industries employing children. Occupational diseases among children are discovered.

1862 In Prussia, the largest of the German states, a member of the landed aristocracy, Otto von Bismarck, becomes minister-president. Representing the king, he declares that his government is to rule without parliament.

1862 In the king's court in Siam, women being taught English by Christian missionaries are turned off by their sermons. Anna Leonowens arrives in Bangkok to teach English in their place. She is the English woman to be depicted in The King and I.

1862 The Frenchman Victor Hugo has his historical novel Les Misérables published. It's about the rebellion in Paris that began in 1830 against King Charles X. The book is serialized in ten installments and a best seller across Europe and North America. Police are called in to control impatient crowds at bookstores. Conservatives see it as a dangerous work. Some see it as a manual for insurgency. Hugo favors revolution, but contrary to Karl Marx he was trying to unite revolution and religion. And unlike Marx (now in exile in London) who wants and end to the ruling class (as a class), Hugo wants to inspire them to humanitarianism and wants freedom and justice for all.

1862 Miners have begun invading the Rocky Mountains and plains and clashing with Indians. The Lakota Sioux massacre or capture almost 1,000 people on the Minnesota frontier.

1862 In the United States the first paper money is issued.

1863 Thirty-eight Lakota Sioux are hanged before a crowd of angry whites in the town of Mankato, Minnesota.

1863 President Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation becomes law.

1863 Slavery ends in Dutch ruled Indonesia.

1863 Cambodia become a French protectorate, with the approval of its king, Norodom.

1863 In Britain, legislators respond to air pollution from the chemical industry by creating the Alkali Act for reducing hydrogen chloride emissions during alkali production.

1863 In London, the first underground (subway) passenger system opens.

1863 The US civil war has cut Russia off from its primary source of cotton. Cotton growing in Central Asia has become of greater importance to the Russians, and Russia sends its military into Central Asia, where people are sparse, largely tribal, economically undeveloped, and Muslim.

1863 A devout Baptist, John D. Rockefeller, age 24, enters the oil refining business.

1864 The Dutch in Java and Sumatra experiment with rubber cultivation.

1864 An atronomer calculates the distance to the sun as 147 million kilometers &ndash short 2.6 million kilometers.

1864 In China, the leader of the Taiping Rebellion, Hong Xiuchuan, proclaims that God will defend his city, Tianjin (southeast of Beijing). When government forces approach he swallows poison and dies. The monarchy re-establishes control over most areas of China. The Taiping rebellion is all but defeated.

1864 A few hand-cranked Gatling guns, designed by Richard Gatling in 1861, are in use in the US Civil War.

1865 Miners have been invading Colorado Territory, dislocating and angering Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians. A Cheyenne-Arapaho war against whites has erupted. An Indian chief of a band of Cheyenne and Arapaho has chosen peace. They have settled temporarily at Sand Creek. A military commander, Colonel Chivington, is intent on killing Indians and leads 700 men in a massacre at Sand Creek that includes women and children.

1865 The US Civil War ends with General Robert E. Lee and his officers surrendering their swords. President Lincoln is assassinated.

1865 The Winnebago Indians have been removed from Iowa, Minnesota and that part of Dakota Territory that is to be South Dakota. They are placed a reservation in Nebraska.

1865 The Central Pacific Railroad Company hires Chinese to work on the transcontinental railroad.

1865 In what today is Uzbekistan, Russians capture the city of Tashkent, which is to become a Russian administrative center.

1865 Over-reaction in crushing a rebellion in Jamaica produces an investigation in England. The island's governor is widely condemned and called to London. Some demand that he be tried for murder. He is removed from office but a grand jury refuses to indict him.

1866 In New Zealand, British regulars, white settlers and Maori loyalists defeat another Maori rebellion.

1866 In the Hawaiian Islands the first plantation workers have arrived, eighty-five percent of them are from China (470 males and 52 females). From Japan, 148 laborers have arrived.

1866 The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals is founded.

1866 A Russian student, acting alone, tries to assassinate Tsar Alexander II. The government becomes hostile to all students. A new minister of education takes charge of the universities and applies stricter controls.

1867 One in five adult males in England and Wales can vote. Demonstrations erupt across Britain. A demonstration in London's Hyde Park is banned by the government, but the crowd is so huge that the government does not attack. The Reform Act of 1867 is passed, extending the vote to those individuals in whose name homes are owned or rented. This doubles the number of males in Wales and England who can vote. Politicians must account themselves to the increased electorate, but the upper classes can better afford the increased campaigning, which helps conservative candidates.

1867 The government of Tsar Alexander II is seeking consolidation of its frontier. It sells Alaska to the United States.

1867 The United States Congress abolishes peonage in the territory of New Mexico.

1867 In the United States, the Republican Party has gained more seats in Congress, and Congress overrides President Andrew Johnson's veto of the "Reconstruction Act." An army, including a black militia, is sent to the South to enforce the law.

1867 In Vienna, the Blue Danube Waltz, by Johann Strauss, premiers.

1867 In the US, five all-black colleges are founded: Howard University in Washington D.C., Morgan State College in Maryland, Talladega College in Alabama, St. Augustine's College and Johnson C. Smith College in North Carolina.

1867 The Jesse James gang robs a bank in Savannah, Missouri, killing one person.

1867 Dating trees by their annual rings begins.

1867 In Sweden, Alfred Nobel finds that when nitroglycerin is combined with an absorbent substance it becomes safer and more convenient to manipulate. His mixture is patented as dynamite.

1867 E. Remington and Sons, manufacturers of guns and sewing machines, develop and manufacture the first commercial typewriter.

1867 Crown Prince Mutsuhito, age 14, ascends the throne as Emperor Meiji.

1868 Feudal lords and others have been conspiring against the Tokugawa rule. A rallying cry is, "Honor the Emperor expel the barbarian." Despite the anti-barbarian slogan, US, British, French and Dutch forces join against the shogunate, shelling coastal fortresses and sinking the shogun's ships. Tokugawa rule is declared over. The capital, Edo, is renamed Tokyo. The emperor rules nominally while civil war continues. Attacks on foreigners continue, but people with influence and power do not want to provoke intervention by the Western Powers and move to end such attacks.

1868 In the United States, the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution is ratified. This overturns the Dred Scott case. It entitles all persons born or naturalized in the United States to citizenship and equal protection under the law. Civil rights are not extended to Indians or anyone who has held office in the Confederacy.

1868 George Custer and his Seventh Cavalry follow tracts of a small raiding party to a Cheyenne village on the Washita River, in western Oklahoma, within the borders of the Cheyenne reservation. There they slaughter Black Kettle, his family and others of the Cheyenne tribe.

1868 Reconstructed governments had been set up in Arkansas, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, North Carolina and South Carolina.

1869 Tokugawa forces that have attempted to establish rule in Hokkaido are defeated. Leaders of the military victory over the Tokugawa begin associating Emperor Meiji with Shinto ideology. Shinto shrines are common on Buddhist temple grounds, and, in an effort to free Shinto from Buddhist domination, violence and the breaking of images is committed against Buddhism. Buddhist temple lands are confiscated.

1869 The transcontinental railroad is completed, ending six years of work. Track from west and east meet in Utah.

1869 The Suez Canal opens. It is largely French owned but eager for international business. Access is promised ships from all nations, for a fee. The canal is to reduce travel time between Europe and Asia. Giuseppe Verdi has written an opera for the opening celebration -- Aida.

1869 One-third of the population of Savu (in the Indonesian Archipelago) die from smallpox.

1869 The Territory of Wyoming allows women to vote.

1870 The Territory of Utah allows women to vote.

1870 Pius IX convenes the First Vatican Council at which papal infallibility is proclaimed on matters of faith and morals.

1870 Diamond deposits have been discovered in southern Africa, at Kimberley in the land of the Griqua, or Griqualand, on the northern frontier of the British colony. Diamond diggers are rushing there &ndash Africans, whites from Europe, Australia and the Americas.

1870 Australia now has a substantial number of Germans and Catholic Irish who worshiped freely. The Irish have found Australia to be without the oppressions they had known in Ireland.

1870 In Pennsylvania a coal mine fire suffocates 179 men. The state responds by passing mine safety laws.

1870 Joseph Lister believes that microorganisms transmit disease. He reports success in sterilizing tools used in surgery.

1870 Bismarck believes that war will arouse nationalist fervor and serve to unite the independent German states with Prussia. France opposes such unity. Bismarck wants a showdown with France and tricks the French into starting war. The Franco-Prussian War begins in July. In September the Prussians defeat the French decisively at Sedan and capture the French emperor, Napoleon III. The emperor is deposed. France's Second Empire ends and Third Republic begins.

1870 In Britain, France, Germany, Austria and in Scandinavian countries, trade relative to population size has increased four to five times what it was in 1830. In Belgium and the Netherlands the increase is about three times.

1850 to 1859 Important News, Key Events, Significant Technology

California became The 31st state of the United States of America , Following the defeat of Mexico in the Mexican-American War and settlers rebelling against Mexican rule during the Bear Flag Revolt (1846). California is sold to the United States in 1848 , just two years later due to its large size (third-largest state in the United States in size) and population it becomes the 31st State.

Los Angeles and San Francisco become cities , After California's Spanish and Mexican rule and Mexican War it becomes a U.S. State, which meant that its larger towns were incorporated. Los Angeles, with a population of 1,610, became a city on April 4th, and San Francisco, with a population of about 21,000, became one on April 16th.

The New York Times Founded , First published by Henry Jarvis Raymond and George Jones on September 18th, 1851, under the name of the New York Daily Times. It was intended for production on every day except Sundays. 1851's articles included: Is Europe Ripe for Revolution?, The Expected Arrival of Kossuth at Washington, Cold Weather in the East, and Fugitive Slave Riots in Lancaster Co. Pa.

The America's Cup , The America, a 101 ft schooner, raced against 15 yachts of the Royal Yacht Squadron in the Club's annual 53 mile regatta around the Isle of Wight, the race was for 100 Guinea's. Following the win the race became "The America's Cup". The America’s Cup regatta is a challenge-driven series of match races between two yachts. From 1850 to 1987 American boats were unbeaten, but in 1987 the Australian Team From Royal Perth Yacht Club beat the American with Australia II and beat the United States Team From the New York Yacht Club.

The Great Exhibition/Crystal Palace , The Great Exhibition also known as Crystal Palace constructed from a cast iron frame and glass opens, attracting six million people (equivalent to a third of the entire population of Great Britain) between 1 May to 15 October 1851. It also featured the first public conveniences in use in England/Monkey Closets and during the exhibition 827,280 visitors paid one penny each to use them which is where the British saying "to spend a penny" comes from.

Uncle Tom's Cabin Published , Uncle Tom's Cabin was widely read in both the U.S. and abroad, and its publication is said to have inspired the anti-slavery movement in the 1850's. It was originally produced for the National Era journal, and then as a two volume edition in Boston. Beecher Stowe's work is said to have sold fifty thousand copies in the first eight weeks, and reached half a million copies within the first six months. The book is cited as one of the causes of the Civil War.

The Safety Elevator , Elisha Otis introduced the safety elevator, using an automatic spring operated brake system. When operated, it prevented the fall of the cab if the cable broke.

Steinway Pianos , Originally from Germany, Heinrich Steinway had built organs and pianos, but moved to the United States in 1850, and founded Steinway and Sons in New York in 1853. They dominated the market, and their earliest workshops were in Manhattan.

The Charge of the Light Brigade , Fought in the Battle of Balaclava in the Crimean War of 1854, the Charge of the Light Brigade was ordered, by Lord Raglan, to be sent against the retreating Russian artillery. The instructions were given without his staff having a good enough vantage of the Balaclava plain, and the misdirected attack sent the 11th Hussars, 13th Light Dragoons, 17th Lancers, 8th Hussars and 4th Light Dragoons along the valley to be flanked by the other Russian batteries. The Light Brigade was led by the Earl of Cardigan and about 450 of the brigade's horses were killed. Of the 673 men that took part in the Charge, 195 returned, 113 were killed and the rest had to walk back to the British lines.

Republican Party Founded , The Republican Party is founded by anti-slavery expansion activists, it is often called the Grand Old Party or the GOP, prior to the Democratic Party breaking away from the Democratic-Republican Party and the National Republicans who later evolved into the Whig Party ( 1824 ).

The Panama Railway crosses from the Atlantic to the Pacific , Once described as the inter-oceanic railroad, the Panama Railway Company crossed Panama, from Aspinwall to Panama City. The railroad is still functioning, and was important to the construction of the Panama Canal itself. It has since been called the Panama Canal Railway.

The Pottawatomie Massacre , On May 24th, 1856, John Brown and his Free State volunteers murdered five men that were settled on the Pottawatomie Creek in southeastern Kansas. These were members of the pro-slavery Law and Order Party, but not themselves slave owners. This happened three days after the Missouri Border Ruffians burned and pillaged an anti-slavery haven in Lawrence, and two days after Massachusetts Senator Charles Sumner was severely beaten by Senator Preston Brooks of South Carolina. Brown's actions on the 24th occurred at three different houses. At the one farm, the owner and two of his sons were dragged outside and hacked up with the sabres that had been donated to Brown in Akron, Ohio. Most of the abolitionist community that supported Brown downplayed this stain on his fight against slavery.

The Indian Mutiny , The Indian Mutiny against British rule in India had been begun by Indian troops (sepoys) that were in the service of the British East India Company. The revolt began when the sepoys had refused to use the new rifle cartridges they were given, which were rumored to be lubricated with grease that contained a mixture of pigs' and cows' lard (and as such would be impure to the Hindu and Muslim troops that used them). The refugees were shackled, and their fellow soldiers had used this as an excuse to shoot their British officers and march on Delhi. The campaign's fighting is recorded as being very hard for both sides, and, with the reinforcements that had come from the loyal sepoys and from the other British garrisons had ended in defeat for the mutineers. Its immediate result was that the East India Company was stopped from administering the provinces and a system of direct rule of India by the British government was started. One cause of the Mutiny had been the requirement for Indian troops to serve overseas (which was a threat to their caste. The famous greased (in fact waxed) cartridge that had been introduced that year proved to be the last straw. It had been rumored that they were lubricated with grease from cattle (holy to Hindus) or pigs (unclean to Muslims). On March 29th, the sepoy Mangal Pandy of the 34th Native Infantry refused orders on the parade ground at Barrackpore, and he was hanged. Thereafter the mutineers were known to the British troops as ‘pandies’. The earlier massacres were overshadowed by what took place at Cawnpore, where General Wheeler commanded a small garrison that was defending the approximately 330 women and children that had been in the city. Having negotiated safe passage out of Cawnpore with Nana Sahib, Wheeler took his force and dependants down to the river Ganges and into the waiting boats. The embarkation was brought under heavy fire. Only one boat escaped, but Wheeler and most of the soldiers were killed, leaving only some 200 women and children to be taken prisoner. When news reached the rebels of an approaching relief force they massacred the prisoners and threw their dismembered bodies into a well, which became and remains the cause célèbre of the Mutiny.

Minnesota became The 32nd state of the United States of America , The northernmost of the contiguous states, it became the 32nd state on May 11th , 1858. The largest of the Midwestern states, its capital is Saint Paul, which is twinned with Minneapolis. The Gopher State!

1920's Fashion

Ladies Dresses From The Decade

Part of our Collection of Childrens Clothes From the Decade

1851-1860 - History

TALBOT, THOMAS, army and militia officer, settlement promoter, office holder, and politician b. 19 July 1771 in Malahide (Republic of Ireland), son of Richard Talbot and Margaret O’Reilly d. 5 Feb. 1853 in London, Upper Canada.

An aristocrat by birth, Thomas Talbot was descended from a noble Anglo-Irish family which had ancestral lands in Ireland dating from the 12th century. He was the fourth son in a family of 12 children and enjoyed a secure childhood in Malahide Castle, the family seat, where he received his early education. On 24 May 1783, at the age of 11, he was commissioned ensign in the 66th Foot. With the American revolution drawing to a close, he was retired on half pay shortly after his promotion to lieutenant on 27 September. He then resumed his formal education, attending for several years Manchester Free Public School in England which had many paying pupils from well-to-do families. In 1787 he was selected, largely through family influence, as an aide-de-camp to a distant relative, the Marquess of Buckingham, lord lieutenant of Ireland. Talbot thereupon assumed the commission of lieutenant in the 24th Foot. During his two and a half years of service under Buckingham, he became fast friends with a fellow aide, Arthur Wellesley, later the Duke of Wellington. In Dublin, Talbot enjoyed the active social life of an aide-de-camp and emerged from it with a full complement of social graces combined with the confidence of a member of the Anglo-Irish aristocracy.

In 1790, the year after Buckingham’s resignation, Talbot joined his regiment on garrison duty at Quebec and the following spring moved with it to Montreal. Partly on Buckingham’s recommendation, the first lieutenant governor of Upper Canada, John Graves Simcoe*, named Talbot as his private secretary in February 1792. The young lieutenant was thus provided with unlimited opportunities to travel throughout the new province and to impress Simcoe with his abilities. The bond forged between the two men over the next four years seems crucial in explaining Talbot’s subsequent actions.

In June and July 1792 he accompanied Simcoe and his wife, Elizabeth Posthuma Gwillim*, to Newark (Niagara-on-the-Lake), Upper Canada’s first capital. Simcoe had planned to locate the capital at the head of navigation on the Thames River, the later site of London, and with Talbot and others undertook an overland expedition to that area and to Detroit in early 1793. Talbot was subsequently sent on several missions to the western end of Lake Erie to parlay on Simcoe’s behalf with the Indians and to meet the Indian agent Alexander McKee*. He travelled as well to Philadelphia as Simcoe’s courier to the British plenipotentiary, George Hammond. Travelling by land and water in considerable freedom undoubtedly gave him the chance to observe and make inquiries about the region north of Lake Erie, where he would eventually live.

In the early summer of 1794 Talbot, then 22, left Simcoe’s staff. The previous fall he had been promoted captain in the 85th Foot and on 6 March 1794 received a further rapid promotion to major. Returning to England in September he subsequently served for two years on active duty: in Holland fighting the French, in Gibraltar on garrison duty, and in England. On 12 Jan. 1796 he purchased a lieutenant-colonelcy in the 5th Foot. He remained in England until September 1799 when war with France again took him to Holland. After the withdrawal of the British later that year he continued to live in England but on Christmas Day 1800 abruptly sold his commission. Almost immediately, at 29, he left to establish himself as a settler in Upper Canada – a sudden change in career that surprised most of his circle. The precise reason for Talbot’s decision is unknown, although several theories have been proposed, including disappointment in love, thwarted political ambitions, failure to advance further in the military, and (as Talbot himself claimed) a desire to assist in the progress and development of Upper Canada.

Talbot began farming in 1801 at “Skitteewaabaa,” believed to be near the mouth of Kettle Creek on the north shore of Lake Erie. He apparently hoped to assume a role that would fit in with Simcoe’s attempt to institute in the 1790s a system by which entire townships were granted to prominent individuals who, as local gentry, would select settlers and allocate land. Disappointed that Simcoe had not reserved land for him, he soon contacted prominent individuals in England such as the Duke of Cumberland (the fifth son of George III) and Simcoe himself. Promoting his intention to bring in British rather than American settlers (and thereby, in the spirit of Simcoe, check “the growing tendency to insubordination and revolt” in Upper Canada), Talbot succeeded in obtaining a field officer’s grant of 5,000 acres in May 1803. He selected his grant in the townships of Dunwich and Aldborough, in Middlesex County, and that same month settled at the mouth of Talbot Creek in Dunwich, the site of Port Talbot, his home for the next 50 years. To stimulate settlement in these townships, he acquired mill machinery in 1804 and two years later constructed a water-powered grist-mill which was of great value to the emerging settlement until its destruction by American troops in 1814.

Initially Talbot’s plan differed little from those of other township developers in Upper Canada’s early years. He was to give 50 of his original 5,000 acres to the head of each family he could attract and in return he would claim 200 acres for himself from reserved land adjoining Dunwich and Aldborough. Talbot could thus eventually accumulate for himself 20,000 acres, which would compare favourably with the holdings of landed magnates in Ireland and Britain. In topographical terms the scheme would create an area of concentrated population surrounded by Talbot’s enlarged holdings. Such a settlement might be expected to prosper as population increased and geographical propinquity alleviated the burden of isolation in what Talbot later recalled as “impenetrable wilderness.”

In 1807, however, he began ignoring the original terms of the scheme when he located settlers outside his 5,000 acres. Apparently, in the fashion of Anglo-Irish nobility, he wanted to create a demesne around his residence to insulate him from ordinary settlers. Although he had expressed to Simcoe in 1802 a desire for “the ultimate establishment of a comfortable and respectable tenantry around me,” it was necessary to Talbot to maintain a suitable distance between Port Talbot and his settlers. In 1842 he was to explain to John Davidson, commissioner of crown lands, that “within my home Belt, . . . . I do not like to have settlers, as I find too near Neighbours a great nuisance.” The provincial government acquiesced in Talbot’s departure and agreed in 1808 to grant him 200 acres as remuneration for each family settled, whether located within his original grant or not. He thus extended his own potential acreage. About this time the government also accepted his practice of claiming and privately allocating land without registering the transfers at the Surveyor General’s Office in York (Toronto) – the sole record being in Talbot’s possession. In these early years of the settlement the rate of growth was extremely slow (between 1803 and 1808 he had placed only 20 families) and settlers did not choose to take up 50-acre lots when they might obtain 200-acre lots elsewhere in the province.

Talbot seemed keenly aware that his isolated holdings required road links to other settlements. Earlier efforts to deal with that sort of problem, such as Simcoe’s Yonge Street, were well known to him. In 1804 he secured his appointment as a London District road commissioner and was instrumental in planning a southerly and topographically superior alternative to both Dundas Street and the Commissioners Road, which linked the district’s middle townships to the head of Lake Ontario. On 15 Feb. 1809 Talbot and Robert Nichol* received provincial commissions from Lieutenant Governor Francis Gore to determine the exact route of the proposed road, which would join Port Talbot and the Niagara District. The Talbot Road east, as it became known, was approved that month by the Surveyor General’s Office and was surveyed by Mahlon Burwell*. As a provincial commissioner Talbot was also responsible for supervising the allocation of lots adjacent to the road. He succeeded in having all provincially reserved lots moved back from the road, as had been done with Yonge Street, and by late 1810 there were numerous settlers with lots along the route. Talbot had to report on the settlers’ progress in fulfilling provincial settlement duties, which comprised the erection of a dwelling and the clearance of land within two years of allocation. By these activities he extended his geographical area of influence far beyond Dunwich and Aldborough townships.

Talbot was assisted in extending his superintendence of land settlement by his close friendship with Gore. In 1811, instead of proceeding formally through a recorded order-in-council, Gore verbally authorized the construction of two other roads: the Talbot Road north, linking Port Talbot to the Westminster Township settlement in the upper Thames River valley, and the Talbot Road west, leading to Amherstburg on the Detroit River. At the same time Talbot gained his permission to superintend the allocation and settlement of vacant crown land in concessions remote from the Talbot Road east in Yarmouth, Malahide, and Bayham townships. Gore’s authorization stimulated Talbot to immediate action and, informing Surveyor General Thomas Ridout* of his scheme, he quickly proceeded to have the new roads surveyed by Mahlon Burwell and to locate settlers on lots alongside the roads and in concessions farther back. The consequences of these actions were both profound and long lasting. A storm of protest, which embarrassed Gore and infuriated Talbot, came from provincial officials who had not been told of Gore’s commitments and who had already allocated lands in Malahide and Bayham. The matter was not readily settled, partly because of the outbreak of the War of 1812. During the war Talbot carried out routine duties as commander of the 1st Middlesex Militia and supervisor of all the militia regiments in the London District.

The government continued to show close interest in the progress of settlement on the lands under Talbot’s supervision. In 1815 and 1817, at the request of Gore, Talbot submitted to Ridout returns of the settlers he had located, revealing for the first time the size and rate of growth of his settlement. The 1815 return named 350 families and two years later the total was 804. A large proportion had not been issued fiats for land and thus were unknown to the provincial authorities. Furthermore, the payment of grant, survey, and patent fees to the government by numerous settlers, amounting to over £4,000 by 1818, was being arbitrarily blocked by Talbot, who wished to retain full control over the settlers until they had completed their settlement duties.

After 1817 the provincial government became increasingly concerned about the collection of internal revenue and doubled its efforts to retrieve fees from settlers. New regulations emphasized fee payment rather than actual residence and were therefore anathema to Talbot. Faced with considerable opposition at York, he travelled to England early in 1818, partly on the advice of the Reverend John Strachan*, who thought he should “go home at once and get the matter settled, if he considered himself aggrieved.” He obtained the support of Lord Bathurst, the colonial secretary, who recognized the value of his work, endorsed his system of personally selecting settlers and withholding their fees, and even permitted him to claim the vast area (over 65,000 acres) of Dunwich and Aldborough that had been reserved in 1803. Thus the extraordinary procedures which he had been using for more than a decade were given official sanction, much to the chagrin of hapless provincial officials. Eventually his authority was extended to include the placing of settlers on land grants and the sale of crown and school reserves.

The consequences of Bathurst’s decision were manifold. For the government it meant a reduction in revenues because of the withholding of fees. As for the process of settlement, Talbot’s set of large-scale township plans, on which he pencilled the name of each settler fortunate enough to be selected for a particular lot, remained the only record of land transactions under his supervision. Not only the allocation but also the forfeiture of land, without provincial involvement and by an easy rubbing out of the name, was thus theoretically possible but the number of settlers ousted by Talbot is not certain. His plans were not examined by the Surveyor General’s Office until at least the mid 1830s and they remained in his possession until his demise. The system thus allowed the non-registration of property titles for many individuals and the absence of any provincial record of alienation for large areas of crown land. Yet most settlers appear to have been content with Talbot’s method of land transfer. They performed the settlement duties, established farms, and did not press for formal evidence of land title, partly perhaps because of the trust they placed in Talbot. Examples exist where two or three decades passed between the initial settlement of lots and the issue of land patents.

By 1828 Talbot’s personal land acquisitions had been terminated despite his vigorous appeals to imperial authorities. His settlement extended over 130 miles from east to west and involved portions of 29 townships in southwestern Upper Canada. He never controlled land allocation and settlement in an entire township, but some – Dunwich, Aldborough, Bayham, Malahide, and London – had large portions under his supervision. Official assessments of the extent of Talbot’s work were provided in 1831 and 1836. The author of a report prepared for the British government in 1831 on land settlement in the British North American provinces commented favourably on the progress of the Talbot settlement but noted fee arrears in excess of £35,000, the payment of which Talbot had been blocking, and suggested that an account of his “landed concerns” be provided. Such a tabulation, made for the provincial assembly in 1836, revealed a total of 519,805 settled acres (excluding Talbot’s personal holdings in Dunwich) on 3,008 lots in the 28 remaining townships. The statement did not describe the reserve land sold by Talbot. More important, it indicated that 63 per cent of the 3,008 lots had not been reported to the surveyor general as settled and that only a quarter of them were patented in spite of lengthy occupation in many instances.

Talbot’s power of supervision was ended in 1838 when Lieutenant Governor Sir Francis Bond Head*, against the advice of his council but with the support of the colonial secretary, Lord Glenelg, asked Talbot to wind up his affairs and turn the settlement over to the province. It had become too large to be managed by an ageing man whose records were inaccessible. Head’s decision was also prompted by the controversy surrounding Talbot’s forfeiture in 1832 of lots he had allocated to four settlers. They appealed his decision and successive provincial administrations deliberated the question of abuse of power. He had clearly acted unjustly in the case of John Nixon, whose land he had forfeited owing to his strong distaste for Nixon’s reform politics, and political antipathy may have played a significant part in two of the other cases. Talbot’s removal appears to have encouraged large numbers of settlers to complete their settlement duties (or claim they had) in order to obtain full title to their land, but it did not detract from his significant record of achievement or his own singular image.

Talbot represented the aristocratic, 18th-century British landowner in the New World. The more than 65,000 acres he had acquired by 1821 in the townships of Dunwich and Aldborough were viewed by William Dummer Powell* as his “palatinate” and by John Strachan as his “Princely domain.” Although Talbot’s holdings in these townships undoubtedly retarded the progress of farming there, he appears to have allowed those who settled early outside his holdings a free choice of location. They chose good land close to kinsfolk and mill-sites. Despite his original intention to settle only British subjects, Talbot accepted from the outset large numbers of Americans, whose prowess as settlers he had quickly recognized. Further, Talbot was virtually excused by the imperial government from observing the province’s post-war regulations which prohibited most Americans from taking the oath of allegiance and acquiring land in Upper Canada. Nevertheless, even if American-born settlers, many of loyalist background, predominated in the Talbot settlement in 1820, after 1815 increasing numbers of British immigrants started to arrive, altering its character. Certain areas became distinctively Scottish, English, or American as social propinquity and farming background influenced choice of land. Highland Scots, for example, initially accepted poor land in 1818 in small (50-acre) lots in Dunwich and Aldborough but later became indignant at the size of the grants, their isolation within Talbot’s undeveloped holdings, and the delay in issuing patents, and this indignation resulted in profound antipathy to Talbot over several subsequent generations.

By the end of the War of 1812 he had acquired considerable political power, particularly in the Middlesex County area, and over the next decade he carefully consolidated this power within the “courtier compact,” the tory oligarchy which had taken shape around him in the region north of Lake Erie. After 1825 his strength waned as political weight shifted towards London, the reform movement gained ground, and his authority in his own settlement began to erode. Associated with his early powers had been the right to allocate such local positions as land surveyor and collector of customs. Within the first six years of his settlement at Port Talbot he himself had acquired several public offices, including legislative councillor, county lieutenant, district magistrate, township constable, school trustee, and road commissioner. Talbot, however, paid remarkably little attention to his collective duties. He chose instead, from his position as father of the settlement, to exercise indirect influence, primarily through the election and control of such tory candidates for the House of Assembly as John Bostwick* and Mahlon Burwell, a neighbouring landholder and county registrar of lands from 1809 to 1843. On only two occasions, when his position appeared to be in jeopardy, did Talbot become directly involved in politics. In the provincial election of 1812, according to Asahel Bradley Lewis*, he blatantly helped Burwell defeat Benajah Mallory . On St George’s Day in 1832, in reaction to rampant political agitation instigated by American settlers in Yarmouth and Malahide townships, Talbot, then 61, spoke to a large meeting at St Thomas, which included hundreds from his settlement. He arrogantly attacked the reformers, whom he blamed for the agitation, but with no lasting impact. Both appearances drew unfavourable attention to Talbot and his reception justified his general reluctance to become openly involved in local politics. There were few who comprehended the complexity of Talbot’s political thought. Deeply rooted in his own interests, it could on occasion differ from that of his associates. His earliest biographer, Lawrence Cunningham Kearney, whose reform newspaper, the Canada Inquirer, Talbot had supported, understood in 1857 that “the Colonel was not violent, if even decided, in politics.”

With advancing years and his reduced role in the settlement Talbot became despondent. In February 1836 he had expressed to William Allan , his close friend and banking agent in Toronto, the wish to be “possessed of a sufficiency to enable me [to] remove to the Moon or some other more wholesome place of residence,” and in 1837 Anna Brownell Jameson [ Murphy ] observed the “slovenly” nature of much of his farm. Two years later, after the brief governorship of Lord Durham [Lambton*], Talbot commented, again to Allan, that he did not “expect to hear much relating to the plans for this miserable Country, . . . Lord Durham is a sad impostor.”

Talbot was always concerned with property and wealth and their acquisition. In 1804 he had expressed to Simcoe his wish to be recommended for the Executive Council rather than the Legislative Council as he did “not like working for nothing, and . . . the £100 is as well to have as not.” In 1822, finding his financial position weak, he appealed directly to Lord Bathurst for a pension, clerical assistance, and the remission of fees which he had paid on his own lands. Four years later only a pension was granted, £400 annually. In 1832, with cash from the sale of cattle, Talbot was able to build a new house. He never married but, in the hope of keeping the farm within his family, he brought a nephew, Julius Airey, to Port Talbot in 1833. The youth stayed for almost eight years but could not take to the isolated existence. His elder brother, Captain Richard Airey, who was stationed in Upper Canada, was a frequent visitor to Port Talbot in the 1830s. In 1843 Talbot first invited him to live there and four years later promised to pass on his estate to him. Airey and his large family arrived in late 1847, displacing Talbot from his house. In May 1848, accompanied by George Macbeth* (at once his servant, companion, and estate manager), Talbot left for an extended visit to England, his first in 19 years. After 10 months they returned and in October 1849 Talbot attended as guest-of-honour the groundbreaking of the Great Western Rail-Road at London.

In early 1850 Talbot quarrelled with Airey, perhaps over differences in their styles of living, and on 16 March he conveyed to him only half of his estate (almost 29,000 acres). The remainder, valued at about £50,000, was bequeathed to Macbeth with the exception of an annuity for the widow of a former servant, Jeffrey Hunter. After a period of sickness Talbot again went to England with Macbeth in July 1850. The Aireys left Port Talbot in April 1851 and that summer Talbot returned to his cherished preserve on Lake Erie. Although a new district had been separated from the London District in 1837 and named in his honour, he was disappointed in 1851 when the new county created from Middlesex was named Elgin, after the governor of Canada, rather than Talbot. Macbeth and his wife moved to London in 1852 and they took Talbot with them. He died at their home at the age of 81 and was buried in the Anglican cemetery at Tyrconnell, a few miles west of Port Talbot.

Thomas Talbot was, and is, an enigmatic character whose deeds are far better known than his personality. He left no autobiography or reminiscences and his bachelorhood dictated no legacy of family recollections. Certain eccentricities – alcoholism, snobbery, reclusiveness, and alleged misogyny – have featured prominently in various biographies and may have warped the public view of his character. But whether these traits were as important to his make-up as has been suggested is open to question, possibly with no satisfactory answer. Talbot was clearly the product of a privileged, aristocratic upbringing which may well have implanted in him strong feelings of superiority that prevailed throughout his life. These feelings may have been especially obvious in the pioneer society of Upper Canada, where few of his peers ventured let alone resided. His impeccable pedigree was probably a lifelong support. In spite of his geographical isolation he was recognized, visited, and entertained as an aristocrat, until his death, by eminent men and women in both Canada and Britain.

Talbot maintained geographical and social isolation at the local level in the manner of a British lord. To many visitors he was arrogant, impatient, and rude, without reverence for nationality or social status, but to others he was a gentleman, fully cognizant of the social graces. He appears to have been attracted to a number of ladies before emigrating and subsequently proved most gracious in certain female company, as testified by Anna Jameson after her visit to Port Talbot in 1837. Furthermore, at home, he seems to have developed extraordinary ties of affection for the members of his household closest to him, his servants, and their families. In any analysis Talbot’s character is obscured by one overriding enigma – his voluntary exile to Upper Canada. This enigma persisted, for he clearly cherished his British background and sought out British company both in Canada and by returning to Britain on six occasions after 1803.

The achievements of Thomas Talbot are embodied in the settlement named for him. The vast region he supervised, particularly along the Talbot roads, was better developed in terms of agriculture and commerce than most of the rest of the province. The best features of his system of land supervision, such as the roads, were never implemented in settlements elsewhere in Upper Canada. He worked alone and placed himself above everyone, alienating most provincial officials by his apparent avarice for land and by his direct recourse to the imperial government. Nevertheless, for several decades, the benefit to the province which resulted from Talbot’s solitary, honest supervision far outweighed the personal benefits he enjoyed.

[Thomas Talbot’s remarkable career has attracted the attention of several biographers from the 1850s to the present. The first biography, by Lawrence Cunningham Kearney, The life of Colonel, the late Honorable Thomas Talbot, embracing the rise and progress of the counties of Norfolk, Elgin, Middlesex, Kent and Essex . . . (Chatham, [Ont.], 1857), was a brief anecdotal tribute. Despite differences in political viewpoint between them, the reform-minded author credited Talbot with much of value. Of all the biographers, Kearney may have been the most perceptive in correctly identifying Talbot’s unique political stance – neither tory nor reform in character.

Another contemporary description, Life of Colonel Talbot, and the Talbot settlement . . . (St Thomas, [Ont.], 1859 repr. Belleville, Ont., 1972), was by Edward Ermatinger*, an acquaintance and associate. This somewhat longer – and largely anecdotal – biography included a description of the Talbot settlement. Ermatinger shared many of Talbot’s conservative views although he attributed the latter’s flaws to lack of religious guidance.

Charles Oakes Zaccheus Ermatinger, a son of Edward, published a substantial biography, greatly expanding upon his father’s work. The Talbot regime or the first half century of the Talbot settlement (St Thomas, 1904) was a more scholarly account although not critical of its subject. It incorporated a reprinted collection of Talbot’s correspondence.

Brief biographies appeared in the Cyclopædia of Canadian biography (Rose and Charlesworth), vol.2, in 1888, and in 1898 in the DNB.

A somewhat more critical view of Talbot was produced as part of an annotated collection of documents published as The Talbot papers (2v., Ottawa, 1908–9). The editor, James Henry Coyne*, was the grandson of an arch-foe of Talbot in the township of Dunwich, their mutual abode. Coyne achieved some objectivity in his biography. His principal criticism was the unjust treatment of the Scottish settlers of Dunwich and Aldborough townships who received only 50 acres and were effectively isolated behind Talbot’s large undeveloped landholdings.

Another descendant from the Coyne family line, Fred Coyne Hamil, wrote a most scholarly biography of Talbot entitled Lake Erie baron: the story of Colonel Thomas Talbot (Toronto, 1955). A wide range of archival materials was tapped in Hamil’s work. The result was a detailed chronological account of Talbot’s career and a substantial sketch of the evolution of the Talbot settlement.

Calaveras County

Calaveras county was the site of a lot of early prospecting in 1848, before the California Gold Rush got into full swing in 1849. Interestingly, the map leaves off famous towns like Angel’s Camp, which was established in 1848.

Perhaps Angel’s Camp was not well known at the time, or perhaps the map maker was just not aware of every booming camp. In all of Calaveras County, the map only shows the town of Double Springs.

Calaveras County, California in 1851

Double Springs

If you are wondering why you have not heard of Double Springs, a town seemingly so important that it is the only one that made it into the 1851 map of Calaveras county, you are not alone. Double Springs is the perfect example of a town that was important at the time the map was made, but quickly vanished as other towns rose to prominence.

Double Springs was made the county seat in 1850 and by 1853 it was a bustling community. However, other towns in the area were becoming more prominent in the 1850’s and they all coveted the role of county seat. The seat was moved to Mokelumne Hill in the early 1850’s, and by 1860 Double Springs was all but abandoned.

Books That Shaped America 1850 to 1900

The Scarlet Letter was the first important novel by Nathaniel Hawthorne, one of the leading authors of nineteenth-century romanticism in American literature. Like many of his works, the novel is set in Puritan New England and examines guilt, sin, and evil as inherent human traits. The main character, Hester Prynne, is condemned to wear a scarlet &ldquoA&rdquo (for &ldquoadultery&rdquo) on her chest because of an affair that resulted in an illegitimate child. Meanwhile, her child’s father, a Puritan pastor who has kept their affair secret, holds a high place in the community. Similar themes are found in later literature as well as in current events.

Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804&ndash1864). The Scarlet Letter. Boston: Ticknor, Reed, and Fields, 1850. Rosenwald Collection, Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (019.02.00)

Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804&ndash1864). The Scarlet Letter. Introduction by Dorothy Canfield. Illustrated by Henry Varnum Poor. Facsimile of cover. New York: The Limited Edition Club, 1941. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (019.01.00)

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Herman Melville, Moby-Dick or, the Whale (1851)

Herman Melville’s tale of the Great White Whale and the crazed Captain Ahab who declares he will chase him &ldquoround perdition’s flames before I give him up&rdquohas become an American myth. Even people who have never read Moby-Dick know the basic plot, and references to it are common in other works of American literature and in popular culture, such as the Star Trek film The Wrath of Khan (1982).

Herman Melville (1819&ndash1891). Moby-Dick or, the Whale. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1851. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (020.00.00)

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Harriet Beecher Stowe, Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1852)

With the intention of awakening sympathy for oppressed slaves and encouraging Northerners to disobey the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850, Harriet Beecher Stowe (1811&ndash1896) began writing her vivid sketches of slave sufferings and family separations. The first version of Uncle Tom’s Cabin appeared serially between June 1851 and April 1852 in the National Era, an antislavery paper published in Washington, D.C. The first book edition appeared in March 1852 and sold more than 300,000 copies in the first year. This best-selling novel of the nineteenth century was extremely influential in fueling antislavery sentiment during the decade preceding the Civil War.

In her copy of Uncle Tom’s Cabin, Susan B. Anthony (1820-1906) in 1903 acknowledges progress made in the last half-century, but regrets that blacks are still not treated fairly. Shown are the book plate, title page, and an inscription from Anthony.

Harriet Beecher Stowe (1811&ndash1896). Uncle Tom’s Cabin or, Life Among the Lowly. 2 vols. Boston: John P. Jewett & Company, 1852. Oliver Wendell Holmes Library Collection and Susan B. Anthony Collection, Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (021.00.00)

Harriet Beecher Stowe (1811&ndash1896). Uncle Tom’s Cabin or, Life Among the Lowly. 2 vols. Boston: John P. Jewett & Company, 1852. Oliver Wendell Holmes Library Collection and Susan B. Anthony Collection, Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (021.01.00)

Harriet Beecher Stowe (1811&ndash1896). Uncle Tom’s Cabin or, Life Among the Lowly. 2 vols. Boston: John P. Jewett & Company, 1852. Oliver Wendell Holmes Library Collection and Susan B. Anthony Collection, Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (022.00.00)

National Era, December 11, 1851. Newspaper. John Davis Batchelder Collection, Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (102.00.00)

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Harriet Beecher Stowe, The Key to Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1853)

Although Stowe tried to present a fairly sympathetic picture of slaveholders in her novel, Southerners severely criticized her work as misrepresenting and exaggerating slave conditions. In order to defend the authenticity of her novel, which Stowe contended was a &ldquomosaic of facts,&rdquoshe collected extensive real-life accounts that supported the experiences and qualities depicted by each of her major characters. In the Key to Uncle Tom’s Cabin, Stowe presents personal observations, testimonial statements, and legal cases that become an even stronger indictment of slavery.

Harriet Beecher Stowe (1811&ndash1896). The Key to Uncle Tom’s Cabin. Boston: John P. Jewett & Co. 1853. John Davis Batchelder Collection, Rare Book and Special Collections Division (023.01.00)

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Henry David Thoreau, Walden or, Life in the Woods (1854)

While living in solitude in a cabin on Walden Pond in Concord, Massachusetts, Henry David Thoreau wrote his most famous work, Walden, a paean to the idea that it is foolish to spend a lifetime seeking material wealth. In his words, &ldquoI went to the woods because I wished to live deliberately, to front only the essential facts of life, and see if I could not learn what it had to teach, and not, when I came to die, discover that I had not lived.&rdquoThoreau’s love of nature and his advocacy of a simple life have had a large influence on modern conservation and environmentalist movements.

Henry David Thoreau (1817&ndash1862). Walden or, Life in the Woods. Boston: Ticknor and Fields, 1854. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (024.00.00)

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Walt Whitman, Leaves of Grass (1855)

The publication of the first slim edition of Walt Whitman’s Leaves of Grass in 1855 was the debut of a masterpiece that shifted the course of American literary history. Refreshing and bold in both theme and style, the book underwent many revisions during Whitman’s lifetime. Over almost forty years Whitman produced multiple editions of Leaves of Grass, shaping the book into an ever-transforming kaleidoscope of poems. By his death in 1892, Leaves was a thick compendium that represented Whitman’s vision of America over nearly the entire last half of the nineteenth century. Among the collection’s best-known poems are &ldquoI Sing the Body Electric,&rdquo&ldquoSong of Myself,&rdquoand &ldquoO Captain! My Captain!,&rdquoa metaphorical tribute to the slain Abraham Lincoln.

Walt Whitman (1819&ndash1892). Leaves of Grass. Brooklyn, New York: [Walt Whitman] and Rome Brothers, 1855. Houghton Whitman Collection, Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (025.00.00)

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Louisa May Alcott, The Mysterious Key (1867)

In the 1860s, a publishing phenomenon in mass marketing appeared that would provide Americans with a wealth of popular fiction at an inexpensive price. These &ldquodime novels&rdquo were aimed at youthful, working-class audiences and distributed in massive editions at newsstands and dry goods stores. In addition to Wild West adventures that appealed to adolescent males, dime novels featured urban detective stories, working-girl narratives, and costume romances that promoted the values of patriotism, bravery, self-reliance, and American nationalism. This dime novel was written by Louisa May Alcott, best known for her novel Little Women (1868) and is one of only two known copies. Through copyright deposit the Library of Congress has accumulated a dime novel collection of nearly 40,000 titles.

Louisa May Alcott (1832&ndash1888). The Mysterious Key and What It Opened. Boston: Elliot, Thomes & Talbot, 1867. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (026.00.00)

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Louisa May Alcott, Little Women, or, Meg, Jo, Beth, and Amy (1868)

This first edition of Louisa May Alcott’s Little Women was published in 1868 when Louisa was thirty-five years old. Based on her own experiences growing up as a young woman with three sisters, and illustrated by her youngest sister, May, the novel was an instant success, selling more than 2,000 copies immediately. Several sequels were published, including Little Men (1871) and Jo’s Boys (1886). Although Little Women is set in a very particular place and time in American history, the characters and their relationships have touched generations of readers and still are beloved.

Louisa May Alcott (1832&ndash1888). Little Women, or, Meg, Jo, Beth, and Amy. Boston: Roberts Brothers, 1868. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (027.01.00)

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Horatio Alger Jr., Mark, the Match Boy (1869)

The formulaic juvenile novels of Horatio Alger Jr. are best remembered for the &ldquorags-to-riches&rdquotheme they championed. In these stories, poor city boys rose in social status by working hard and being honest. Alger preached respectability and integrity, while disdaining the idle rich and the growing chasm between the poor and the affluent. In fact, the villains in Alger’s stories were almost always rich bankers, lawyers, or country squires. Published in May 1868, Ragged Dick was an immediate success and propelled Alger from obscurity to literary prominence. Mark, the Match Boy and subsequent volumes in the Ragged Dick series were followed by a sustained output of similar stories in which self-help was a means to upward mobility and economic sufficiency.

Horatio Alger Jr. (1832&ndash1899). Mark, the Match Boy. Boston: Loring, 1869. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (028.00.00)

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Catharine E. Beecher and Harriet Beecher Stowe, The American Woman’s Home (1869)

This classic domestic guide by sisters Catharine E. Beecher and Harriet Beecher Stowe is dedicated to &ldquothe women of America, in whose hands rest the real destinies of the Republic.&rdquoIt includes chapters on healthful cookery, home decoration, exercise, cleanliness, good air ventilation and heat, etiquette, sewing, gardening, and care of children, the sick, the aged, and domestic animals. Intended to elevate the &ldquowoman’s sphere&rdquoof household management to a respectable profession based on scientific principles, it became the standard domestic handbook.

Catharine E. Beecher (1800&ndash1878) and Harriet Beecher Stowe (1811&ndash1896). The American Woman’s Home or, Principles of Domestic Science Being a Guide to the Formation and Maintenance of Economical, Healthful, Beautiful, and Christian Homes. New York: J. B. Ford, 1869. Katherine Golden Bitting Collection, Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (029.00.00)

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Mark Twain, Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1884)

Novelist Ernest Hemingway famously said, &ldquoAll modern American literature comes from one book by Mark Twain called Huckleberry Finn. . . . All American writing comes from that. There was nothing before. There has been nothing as good since.&rdquoDuring their trip down the Mississippi on a raft, Twain depicts in a satirical and humorous way Huck and Jim’s encounters with hypocrisy, racism, violence, and other evils of American society. His use in serious literature of a lively, simple American language full of dialect and colloquial expressions paved the way for many later writers, including Hemingway and William Faulkner.

Mark Twain (Samuel Clemens, 1835&ndash1910). The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (Tom Sawyer’s Comrade). London: Chatto & Windus, 1884. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (030.00.00)

Mark Twain (Samuel Clemens, 1835&ndash1910). Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (Tom Sawyer’s Comrade). New York: Charles L. Webster and Co., 1885. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (030.01.00)

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Emily Dickinson, Poems (1890)

Very few of the nearly 1,800 poems that Emily Dickinson wrote were published during her lifetime and, even then, they were heavily edited to conform to the poetic conventions of their time. A complete edition of her unedited work was not published until 1955. Her idiosyncratic structure and rhyming schemes have inspired later poets.

Emily Dickinson (1830&ndash1886). Poems. Boston: Roberts Brothers, 1890. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (031.00.00)

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Emily Dickinson, Slant of Light=Sesgo de Luz (1890)

This elaborate book art creation is testimony to the enduring international popularity of Emily Dickinson’s poetry. Ediciones Vigia, the publishing collective at Matanzas, Cuba, has been producing handcrafted books of Cuban and classic literature, folklore, music, and local history since 1985. The text of this selection of Dickinson’s poems in English and Spanish is mimeographed, and recycled materials are used for covers and the case that recreates Dickinson’s Amherst house.

Emily Dickinson (1830&ndash1886). Slant of Light=Sesgo de Luz. Matanzas, Cuba: Ediciones Vigia, 1998. Press Collection, Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (32.00.00)

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Jacob Riis, How the Other Half Lives (1890)

An early example of photojournalism as vehicle for social change, Riis’s book demonstrated to the middle and upper classes of New York City the slum-like conditions of the tenements of the Lower East Side. Following the book’s publication (and the public’s uproar), proper sewers, plumbing, and trash collection eventually came to the neighborhood.

Jacob Riis (1849&ndash1914). How the Other Half Lives: Studies Among the Tenements of New York. New York: Penguin Books, 1997. General Collections, Library of Congress (033.00.00)

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Stephen Crane, The Red Badge of Courage (1895)

One of the most influential works in American literature, Stephen Crane’s The Red Badge of Courage has been called the greatest novel about the American Civil War. The tale of a young recruit in the American Civil War who learns the cruelty of war made Crane an international success, although he was born after the war and had not experienced battle himself. The work is notable for its vivid depiction of the internal conflict of its main character—an exception to most war novels until that time, which focused more on the battles than on their characters.

Steven Crane (1871&ndash1900). The Red Badge of Courage: An Episode of the American Civil War. New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1895. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (034.00.00)

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