Hormizd I in Battle

Hormizd I in Battle


Armenia lies in the highlands surrounding the Biblical mountains of Ararat.

The House of Sasan was the house that founded the Sasanian Empire, ruling this empire from 224 to 651.

Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels &ndash which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves &ndash exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).


A deserted sanctuary near Mosul’s frontlines

The sound of artillery can be easily heard from the mountaintop of al-Qosh.

Although the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) group was pushed back from nearby villages, the few people remaining in Saint Hormizd Monastery and the town itself are still living in a state of tension. The town, about 50km north of Mosul, is now largely deserted.

The monastery, considered to be one of the oldest still standing in Ninevah province, is virtually abandoned, with no visitors and no masses. None of the archbishops live here any more, having fled alongside most of the town’s residents when ISIL, also known as ISIS, took control of large parts of Ninevah.

The monastery overlooks the Ninevah plains, and battles between the Kurdish Peshmerga and Iraqi forces against ISIL can be watched from the top.

“I just pray every day that all of this will end very soon. We have been living in fear of ISIL for more than two years now,” said Matta Rammo, 49, one of two guards who remains at the monastery.

Ghazwan Elias, 36, who heads a local community organisation for the less fortunate, described the situation as “catastrophic”.

“All my people have left the town. I refuse to leave,” he told Al Jazeera. “I want my children to be raised here, in my country, here in Iraq.”


Aftermath

Occupation of Ahvaz City and settlement of Muslims

"While the people of al-Basrah and those who were living under their protection were thus engaged, a controversy flared up, each side putting forth contradictory claims concerning the boundaries of their lands, between al-Hurmuzan on the one hand and Ghalib and Kulayb on the other. Sulma and Harmala went there to see what going on among them and found Galib and Kulayb to be in the right and al-Hurmuzan to be wrong. So they separated the quarreling parties. Moreover al-Hurmuzan went back on his word and withheld what he had accepted to pay. Then he called upon the Kurds to help him, whereupon his army grew in strength."

Now (paragraph 2541) Omar sends "Hurqus b. Zuhair al-Sadi one of the Prophet's Companions as reinforcement." and "So, when they crossed over the bridge to the other side, fighting broke out while they were still on that part directly facing Suq al-Ahwas. In the end al-Hurmuzan was beaten.


Succession [ edit | edit source ]

After his death, his oldest son Adhur Narseh, who had a cruel disposition, was killed by the grandees after a very short reign Γ] another son, Hormizd, was imprisoned, while the throne was reserved for the child of his concubine, Shapur II. Another version has it that Shapur II was the son of Hormizd II's first wife, and that while still pregnant she was made to wear a crown over her pudenda so that the baby would be born as a king. Δ] Hormizd II also had many other sons named Adurfrazgird, Zamasp, Ardashir, and two daughters named Hormizddukht and Asay.


Hormizd IV

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Hormizd IV, (died 590), king of the Sāsānian empire (reigned 578/579–590) he was the son and successor of Khosrow I.

According to one ancient source, Hormizd protected the common people while maintaining severe discipline in his army and court. When the priests demanded a persecution of the Christians, he refused on the grounds that the throne and government could be safe only with the goodwill of both religions. From his father, Hormizd inherited wars against the Byzantine Empire and the Turks. Though negotiations for peace had begun with the Byzantine emperor Maurice, Hormizd declined to cede any of his father’s conquests. In 588 his general, Bahrām Chūbīn, defeated the Turks but in 589 was beaten by the Romans. When Hormizd dismissed Bahrām, the general rebelled with his army an insurrection followed. Hormizd was deposed and killed, and his son was proclaimed king as Khosrow II.


Battlefield [ edit | edit source ]

The site of the Battle of Qadisiyyah, showing Muslim army (in red) and Sassanid army (in blue)

Qadisiyya was a small town on the west bank of the river Ateeq, a branch of the Euphrates. Al-Hira, ancient capital of Lakhmid Dynasty, was about thirty miles west. According to present day geography, it is situated at southwest of al-Hillah and Kufah in Iraq.


Hormizd I in Battle - History

Ardashir ends the Parthian empire

Ardashir and the conquest of Armenia

Ardashir revives Zoroastrianism

Administrative reforms of Ardashir

First Campaign against Rome 241 - 244

Gordian III victory and death

Miriades installed in power, Shapur retakes Asia Minor

Odenathus restores Roman rule in the East

The fate of Valerian and his soldiers

Aurelian plans to invade the Sassanid empire

Mysterious death of Emperor Carus

Diocletian and Tiridates of Armenia

death of Bahram II 282 Bahram III 293

Victory in Armenia, war with Diocletian

Persecution of Christians

Armenia converts to Christianity

War between Rome and the Sassanids again

Shapur tries to regain Mesopotamia

The battle of Singara, 348

Novel siege of Nisibis 350

Arsaces offers to wed Roman

Shapur sends an envoy to Julian

Julian and Arsaces, king of Armenia

Julian Starts the invasion

Julian enters Sassanid territory

Anathan burned, tomb of Gordian III

Julian sends Shaprus brother to treat Perisabor, attacks

Roman fleet crosses the Tigris

Roman victory outside Ctesiphon

Retreat decided upon, fleet burned

Shapur invades roman territory 371

Garrison of 10,000 slaughetered in Armenia

Roman and Sassanid partition of Armenia, 36 years of peace with Roman empire

Protection of Arcadius' son

Yazdegerd and the Christians

Persecution of Christians

Bahram takes army to Nisibis

Single combat to decide war

Invasion of the Hephthalite or white Huns

Yazdegerd declares war on Byzantine empire

Armenians revolt over forced conversion to Zoroastrianism

Sever defeat in the north west against the White Huns

War with the Hephthalites

War with the Hephthalite again, the pillar

Disaster of the Ditch, death of Peroz

The communistic prophet, Mazdak

Decision to depose Kobad in favor of Zamasp

The second reign of Kobad

Mazdak no longer supported

Kobad invades roman Armenia

Hephthalite invasion, Roman advance

Mazdakite plot, Mazdakites massacred

Belisarius in Mesopotamia

Chosroes was proclaimed lawful monarch

Persecution of the followers of Mazdak

The ' endless peace ' between Persia and the Byzantine empire

victories of the Byzantine empire

Chosroes urgered to attack before it is ' too late '

Chosroes marches on Antioch: Suron

Persian Antioch built for captives

war in the north-east with the Turks

Chosroes rejects Turkish alliance, Turks turn to Byzantine empire

Byzantines refuse payment

Administration of Persia under Chosroes I .

a patron of science and learning

Hormizd continues thr Byzantine war

civil unrest, trouble in the east

insurgent army marches on Ctesiphon

relationship with general Bahram

Chosroes flees to the Byzantine court

Bahram declares himself king

battles with Bahram for the empire

Bahram defeated, flees to the Turks

The second reign of Chosroes I

Bahram murdered by the Turk Queen

plan of depopulating Armenia

11 years of peace with the Byzantine empire

Phocas murders the Byzantine emperor, becomes emperor, Chosroes declares war

Heraclius deposes Phocas, invasion of Damascus and Jerusalem

the ' true Cross ' sent to Ctesiphon

Sassanid general Shahen at the gates of Byzantium

Chosroes plans to end war through seige of Constantinople, Heraclius divides his forces


Hormazd IV, King of Persia

Occupation: Shah of Persia Hormizd IV (also known as Hormazd IV) reigned as the twenty-first King of Persia from 579 to 590.

He seems to have been imperious and violent, but not without some kindness of heart. Some very characteristic stories are told of him by Tabari (Noldeke, Geschichte d. Perser und Arhalter unter den Sasaniden, 264 ff.). His father's sympathies had been with the nobles and the priests. Hormizd IV protected the common people and introduced a severe discipline in his army and court. When the priests demanded a persecution of the Christians, he declined on the ground that the throne and the government could only be safe if it gained the goodwill of both concurring religions. The consequence was that Hormizd IV raised a strong opposition in the ruling classes, which led to many executions and confiscations.

When Hormizd IV came to the throne in 579, he killed his brothers. From his father he had inherited a war against the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire and against the Turks in the east, and negotiations of peace had just begun with the Emperor Tiberius II, but Hormizd IV haughtily declined to cede anything of the conquests of his father. Therefore the accounts given of him by the Byzantine authors, Theophylact Simocatta (iii.16 ff), Menander Protector and John of Ephesus (vi.22), who give a full account of these negotiations, are far from favorable.

Hormizd firstly married our ancestor Queen Khuraddukht, daughter of Hephthal V, last soverign of Hephtalite. She had three sons and two daughters: Khosrau II of Persia (our ancestor) Hormizd, Prince of Babylonia Yazdegerd, Prince of Marakhanda Scheherazade, who married Tiridates, Prince of Mesopotamia and Omazade, who married Shapur, Prince of Chahar Mahaal and Bakhtiari

Determined to teach the haughty prince a lesson, the Roman (Byzantine) General Maurice crossed the frontier and invaded Kurdistan. The next year, he even planned to penetrate into Media and Southern Mesopotamia, but the Ghassanid sheikh al-Mundhir allegedly betrayed the Roman cause by informing Hormizd IV of the Roman Emperor's plans. Maurice was forced to retreat in a hurry but during the course his retreat to the Roman frontier, he drew the Persian general Adarman into an engagement and defeated him.

In 582, the Persian general Tamchosro crossed the Perso-Roman frontier and attacked Constantia but was defeated and killed. However, the deteriorating physical condition of the Roman Emperor Tiberius forced Maurice to return to Constantinople immediately. Meanwhile John Mystacon, who had replaced Maurice, attacked the Persians at the junction of the Nymphius and the Tigris but was defeated and forced to withdraw. Another defeat brought about his replacement by Phillipicus.

Phillipicus spent the years 584 and 585 making deep incursions into Persian territory. The Persians retaliated by attacking Monocartium and Martyropolis in 585. Phillipicus defeated them at Solachon in 586 and besieged the fortress of Chlomoron. After an unsuccessful siege, Philippicus retreated and made a stand at Amida. Soon, however, he relinquished command to Heraclius in 587.

In the year 588, the Roman troops mutinied and taking advantage of this mutiny, Persian troops once again attacked Constantia but were repulsed. The Romans retaliated with an equally unsuccessful invasion of Arzanene, but defeated another Persian offensive at Martyropolis.

In 589, the Persians attacked Martyropolis and captured it after defeating Philippicus twice. Philippicus was recalled and was replaced by Comentiolus, under whose command the Romans defeated the Persians at Sisauranon. The Romans now laid siege to Martyropolis, but at the height of the siege news circulated in Persia about a Turkish invasion.

The Turks had occupied Balkh and Herat and were penetrating into the heart of Persia when Hormizd IV finally dispatched a contingent under the general Bahram Chobin to fight them back. Bahram marched upon Balkh and defeated the Turks killing their Khan and capturing his son.

Soon after the threat from the north was exterminated, Bahram was sent to fight the Romans on the western frontier. He was initially successful, warding off an Iberian offensive against Azerbaijan, raiding in Svaneti and defeating a Roman attack on Albania, but he was defeated by the Roman general Romanus in a subsequent battle on the river Araxes. King Hormizd, jealous of the rising fame of Bahram, wished to humiliate him and sent him a complete set of women's garments to wear. Bahram responded by writing him an extremely offensive letter. Enraged, Hormizd sent Persian soldiers to arrest Bahram, but they moved over to Bahram's side. Now Bahram moved to Persia with a large army to depose the haughty monarch and place himself on the throne.

Besides, Hormizd's behavior had now turned so unbearable that his son, our ancestor Khusro broke into open revolt. With a civil war brewing in Persia, Hormizd did not survive on the Persian throne for long. The magnates deposed and blinded Hormizd IV and proclaimed his son Khosro II King. The sources do not agree on how Hormizd was killed: Theophylact states (iv.7) that Khosrau killed him a few days after his father was blinded the Armenian historian Sebeos (History, Ch.10.75) states that Hormizd's own courtiers killed him.

See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hormizd_IV for more information. Hormizd IV, son of Khosrau I, reigned as the twenty-first King of Persia from 579 to 590.

He seems to have been imperious and violent, but not without some kindness of heart. Some very characteristic stories are told of him by Tabari (Theodor Nöldeke, Geschichte d. Perser und Araber unter den Sasaniden, 264 ff.). His father's sympathies had been with the nobles and the priests. Hormizd IV protected the common people and introduced a severe discipline in his army and court. When the priests demanded a persecution of the Christians, he declined on the ground that the throne and the government could only be safe if it gained the goodwill of both concurring religions. The consequence was that Hormizd IV raised a strong opposition in the ruling classes, which led to many executions and confiscations.

When Hormizd IV came to the throne in 579, he killed his brothers. From his father he had inherited a war against the Byzantine Empire and against the Turks in the east, and negotiations of peace had just begun with the Emperor Tiberius II, but Hormizd IV haughtily declined to cede anything of the conquests of his father. Therefore the accounts given of him by the Byzantine authors, Theophylact Simocatta (iii.16 ff), Menander Protector and John of Ephesus (vi.22), who give a full account of these negotiations, are far from favourable.

Determined to teach the haughty prince a lesson, the Roman General Maurice crossed the frontier and invaded Kurdistan. The next year, he even planned to penetrate into Media and Southern Mesopotamia but the Ghassanid sheikh al-Mundhir allegedly betrayed the Roman cause by informing Hormizd IV of the Roman Emperor's plans. Maurice was forced to retreat in a hurry but during the course his retreat to the Roman frontier, he drew the Persian general Adarman into an engagement and defeated him.

In 582, the Persian general Tamchosro crossed the Perso-Roman frontier and attacked Constantia but was defeated and killed. However, the deteriorating physical condition of the Roman Emperor Tiberius forced Maurice to return to Constantiople immediately. Meanwhile John Mystacon, who had replaced Maurice, attacked the Persians at the junction of the Nymphius and the Tigris but was defeated and forced to withdraw. Another defeat brought about his replacement by Philippicus.

Philippicus spent the years 584 and 585 making deep incursions into Persian territory.[1] The Persians retaliated by attacking Monocartium and Martyropolis in 585. Philippicus defeated them at Solachon in 586 and besieged the fortress of Chlomoron. After an unsuccessful siege, Philippicus retreated and made a stand at Amida. Soon, however, he relinquished command to Heraclius in 587.

In the year 588, the Roman troops mutinied and taking advantage of this mutiny, Persian troops once again attacked Constantia but were repulsed. The Romans retaliated with an equally unsuccessful invasion of Arzanene, but defeated another Persian offensive at Martyropolis.

In 589, the Persians attacked Martyropolis and captured it after defeating Philippicus twice. Philippicus was recalled and was replaced by Comentiolus under whose command the Romans defeated the Persians at Sisauranon. The Romans now laid siege to Martyropolis but at the height of the siege news circulated in Persia about a Turkish invasion.

The Turks had occupied Balkh and Herat and were penetrating into the heart of Persia when Hormizd IV finally dispatched a contingent under the general Bahram Chobin to fight them back. Bahram marched upon Balkh and defeated the Turks killing their Khan and capturing his son.

Soon after the threat from the north was exterminated, Bahram was sent to fight the Romans on the western frontier. He was initially successful, warding off an Iberian offensive against Azerbaijan, raiding in Svaneti and defeating a Roman attack on Albania, but was defeated by the Roman general Romanus in a subsequent battle on the river Araxes. Hormizd, jealous of the rising fame of Bahram, wished to humiliate him and sent him a complete set of women's garments to wear. Bahram responded by writing him an extremely offensive letter. Enraged, Hormizd sent Persian soldiers to arrest Bahram but they moved over to Bahram's side. Now Bahram moved to Persia with a large army to depose the haughty monarch and place himself on the throne.

Besides, Hormizd's behavior had now turned so unbearable that his son, Khusrau broke into open revolt. With a civil war brewing in Persia, Hormizd did not survive on the Persian throne for long. The magnates deposed and blinded Hormizd IV and proclaimed his son Khosrau II King. The sources do not agree on how Hormizd was killed: Theophylact states (iv.7) that Khosrau killed him a few days after his father was blinded the Armenian historian Sebeos (History, Ch.10.75) states that Hormizd's own courtiers killed him. 22nd Sassanid King of Iran

Hormizd IV is called a Torkzad in the Shahnameh, meaning son of Turk, according to some sources his mother was the daughter of the Turkish khaqan, this, however, has been rejected by Encyclop๭ia Iranica, which states that the marriage with the daughter of the Turkish khaqan is impossible, and says that Hormizd was born in 540, thirty years before Khosrau's marriage.

War against the Byzantines War in the East [. According to Ferdowsi, Mihransitad told the Sasanian king that the astrologers had predicted that a certain Bahram Chobin would be the savior of Iran. He then suggested that Bahram Chobin should be summoned to the Sasanian court. The aged Mihransitad is said to have immediately died after that.

Hormizd did as he advised and finally dispatched a contingent under the general Bahram Chobin to fight them back. Bahram marched upon Balkh and defeated the Turks killing their Khan and capturing his son.

Soon after the threat from the north was exterminated, Bahram was sent to fight the Khazars on the northern frontier, where he was successful. He was then sent to fight the Romans on the northern frontier, where he was initially successful, raiding in Svaneti as well as warding off both Caucasian Iberian and Roman offensives against Caucasian Albania, but was defeated by the Roman general Romanus in a subsequent battle on the river Araxes.

Hormizd, jealous of the rising fame of Bahram, disgraced him, and had him removed from the Sasanian office. Hormizd also wished to humiliate him and sent him a complete set of women's garments to wear. Bahram responded by writing him an extremely offensive letter. Enraged, Hormizd sent Persian soldiers to arrest Bahram but they moved over to Bahram's side. Bahram, with a large army, then marched towards the capital, Ctesiphon.

After hearing about Bahram's rebellion, Hormizd tried to organize an effective resistance against him by trying to sideline with Vistahm and Vinduyih along with other Sasanian nobles, but was dissuaded, according to Sebeos, by his son, Khosrau II. Hormizd responded by having Vinduyih and many other nobles imprisoned, but Vistahm apparently managed to flee soon after, however, the two brothers appear as the leaders of a palace coup that deposed, blinded and killed Hormizd, raising his son Khosrau to the throne.

[Then Tiberius died, leaving a good portion of the land grieving. And Maurice became emperor [582-602].

Rome, however, rebelled against Maurice and seated Germanus (Garamios) as their own emperor. Previously he had been successful in warfare against the Persians. Then the Persian king Khosrov died and his son Hurmazd [V, 579-590] reigned. Now [Maurice] sent [emissaries] to Rome so that they would recognize him [as emperor] [g280], but the Romans refused. Instead, they went to the country of Persia and took captives, sending 3,000 to Maurice. Germanus subordinated himself to Maurice, who was delighted. And so he agreed to let him rule the Roman [sector of the empire] , under his authority. [Maurice] ordered that the city of Arabissus — whence he himself hailed — should be enlarged. This was located in Second Armenia, and so some said that he was of Armenian origin. Four years later the city was devastated by an earthquake and was rebuilt with the greatest care, better than before. But it was hit by an earthquake yet again.

Maurice then placed his brother-in-law, his sister's husband, Phillippicus, as military commander and sent him against the Persians. The Persians had sent much treasure from Nisibis to Martyropolis (Mup'arghin) and took that city. Phillippicus went and retook it and killed the Persians who were there. That same year the Persians turned against their king Hurmazd and blinded him. He died in the eighth year of Maurice's reign. In the ninth year of Maurice, Hurmazd's son, Khosrov, was enthroned [Khosrov n, first reign, 590].


Shapur I

Shapur I: king of Persia, ruling from 241 to 272, member of the Sasanian dynasty.

Main deeds:

  • Name: Shapur I
  • As crown prince, Shapur I, appears to have taken Nisibis and Harran in 235 or 236, after the violent death of the Roman emperor Severus Alexander and the accession of Maximinus. Alernatively, this may have happened in 241.
  • Beginning of reign: 240 (coregency with his father) or 241
  • Successor of:Ardašir I
  • 241 The Persian army procedes to the west, and the Roman emperor Gordian III declares war. Unfortunately, there's more that's not been recorded: our sources about this conflict are hopeless, although it is certain that the Romans invaded the Sasanian Empire in 244, recovered Harran and Nisibis, note [Historia Augusta, Three Gordians26.6.] and were defeated at Misiche. Gordian died under unclear circumstances and the new emperor, Philip, allowed the Sasanians to occupy Armenia.
  • However, Armenia was not Philip's to give away: it was an independent kingdom, and its Arsacid kings held out against the Sasanians, who in an inscription on the walls of the Ka'bah-i Zardusht in Naqš-e Rustam blamed Philip, who "had lied about Armenia".
  • War with Rome was renewed in 253. Shapur again invaded the Roman Empire, and defeated a large force at Barbalissus. Next year, he recaptured Nisibis and attacked Syria. The Romans found it hard to retaliate, because they were also under attack from the Germanic tribesmen who were later called Visigoths. In the end, however, the emperor Valerian mustered a large army, which was again defeated by Shapur. Valerian was taken captive, and it seemed that Shapur would conquer the now undergarrisoned eastern part of the Roman Empire.
  • However, Shapur I now conquered Armenia. Its king Tiridates II left the country and his children sided with the Persians. note [Zonaras, History 12.21.] The country was ruled by Sasanian princes, first Hormizd I, then Narseh.
  • A local leader named Odaenathus of Palmyra restored the Roman border and continued the war. He was immensely successful:, he first recovered Nisibis for the Romans (262), and invaded the Sasanian Empire, even reaching its capital Ctesiphon. note [Historia Augusta, Odaenathus, 3-4.] Although he was assassinated in 267 and his wife Zenobia unsuccessfully tried to create an independent empire, in the end, Rome's eastern frontier had been restored.
  • End of reign: 272
  • Succeeded by:Hormizd I (Ardašir II)

Rock Reliefs

Naqš-e Rajab, Equestrian relief of Shapur I, king

Bishapur, Relief 3, Central scene: Shapur, Gordian, Philip, Valerian, courtiers

Bishapur, Cave of Shapur, Portrait of Shapur I

Naqš-e Rustam, Relief of Shapur I receiving the surrender of Philip and capture of Valerian


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