We are searching data for your request:
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.
Battle of Magnano, 5 April 1799
The battle of Magnano (5 April 1799) was a French defeat early in the War of the Second Coalition that ended any chance of their expelling the Austrians from northern Italy before Russian reinforcements could reach the area.
At the end of the War of the First Coalition Austrian had gained all of the Veneto (the land provinces of Venice) east of the Adige River, while the French occupied much of the rest of northern Italy. At the start of the War of the Second Coalition France and Austria each had just under 60,000 men facing each other across the Adige, the French under General Barthélemy Schérer, the Austrians under Feldmarschalleutnant Paul Kray Freiherr von Krajova, while a large Russian army under Field Marshal General Suvorov was on its way to Italy.
The French Directory ordered Schérer to go onto the offensive and to push the Austrians out of Verona and the Veneto before the Russians could arrive. The first French attack came on 26 March (battle of Verona). Schérer managed to cross the Adige above Verona but was forced to withdraw on the day after the battle after his weak left wing was defeated.
Schérer then decided to cross the Adige downstream of Verona, a move that could have isolated the Austrians, but the river crossing proved to be more difficult than expected. Schérer then discovered that the Austrians had come out of Verona and decided to alter his plan. Rather than cross the river the French turned north and advanced towards Verona.
The French advanced in three columns. On the left were 20,000 men in three divisions, two under General Moreau and one under General Sérurier. In the centre was a single division of 7,000 men under General Delmas, and on the right were 14,000 men in two divisions under Generals Victor and Grenier.
Kray had indeed come out of Verona, intending to attack the French as they crossed the river. He now reorganised his force into three small columns of 7,000 men and two reserve columns 10,000 strong. The left and right Austrian columns were thus much weaker than the French forces opposing them, but one of the Austrian reserve columns, under General Hohenzollern, was posted just behind the Austrian right (west).
At first the French were successful. The Austrian left (General Mercandin) ran into Victor and Grenier at Pozzo, south east of Verona. After an inconclusive clash between the French and Austrian infantry a French cavalry attack forced Mercandin to retreat.
In the centre General Kaim advanced through Magnano and ran into Delmas a little further south at Buttapietra. This was the only clash between equal forces, but Delmas was soon joined by part of Moreau's force and Kaim was also forced to retreat.
On the French left Moreau's remaining men were strong enough to stop General Zoph's column, while Sérurier's division clashed with Hohenzollern's reserve force around Isolalta.
At this point honours were about even, but the French were now completely committed while Kray still had the 10,000 men of his central reserve. Part of this reserve was used to reinforce Mercandin, who then made a new attack on Grenier's division while another part attacked Grenier from the west, hitting his left flank. The French right wing was forced to retreat in some confusion.
Elsewhere the French held their ground or pushed the Austrians back, but by the end of the day the French had suffered 4,000 casualties and lost 4,500 prisoners. The Austrians also suffered about 4,000 casualties, but on the day after the battle it was the French who retreated, pulling back across the Oglio River, leaving garrisons in Mantua and Peschiera.
After the battle Schérer resigned and was replaced by Moreau, while Kray was rewarded with promotion to Field Marshal. In mid April Suvorov and the Russians arrived, and the Allied army advanced west towards Milan. At the end of April Moreau was defeated at Cassano and the Allied entered Milan. In one month Napoleon's conquests of 1796 had been undone.
Napoleonic Home Page | Books on the Napoleonic Wars | Subject Index: Napoleonic Wars
Jean Joseph Magdeleine Pijon
Jean Joseph Magdeleine Pijon or Jean Pigeon, born 7 September 1758 – died 5 April 1799, was a French general who was killed in combat during the French Revolutionary Wars. He led an attack column at Loano in late 1795. He commanded a brigade in Napoleon Bonaparte's French Army of Italy during several famous campaigns. In 1796 he fought at Lonato where he was briefly captured, Rovereto where he was in the forefront of the action, Bassano, Cerea where he led the advance guard, and early in the Arcole campaign where he was wounded. In Italy during 1799, he fought at Verona and met his death at Magnano. His surname is one of the 660 names inscribed under the Arc de Triomphe.
Battle [ edit | edit source ]
Moreau deployed the divisions of MGs Paul Grenier, Claude Victor, Jean Sérurier, and Pierre de Laboissière to defend the line of the Adda River. The Austrians still made up the bulk of the allied army, since only three formations of Cossacks were present. The Austrian division commanders were FML Peter Ott, FML Johann Zoph, General-Major Franz de Lusignan (acting commander for FML Michael Fröhlich), and FML Konrad Valentin von Kaim. ΐ] Even before the battle, a Russian force under Petr Bagration outflanked the French position by seizing a bridge over the Adda at Lecco on 26 April. This put Sérurier's division in an awkward position. On 27 April, General of Cavalry Michael von Melas with the divisions of Fröhlich and Kaim stormed the French positions at Cassano, while Ott and Zoph attacked 6 km farther north at Vaprio d'Adda. Α] Suvarov's assault forced Moreau to retreat.
Battle [ edit | edit source ]
As early as 10 May, the Cossack regiments of Denisov, Grekov, and Molchanov, supported by the Kalemin Grenadier Battalion, cleared the French from Marengo. The Austrians were massed east of the village of San Giuliano while Bagration's Russian vanguard was at Novi Ligure. Starting on 13 May, Suvorov began edging his south bank forces toward the north because he intended to cross the Po and march west toward Turin. He wanted his troops to begin crossing the Po at Alluvioni Cambiò on 16 May, but other events intervened. ⎗] Earlier, Moreau believed that Suvorov was going to march against MacDonald, but now he thought that the Russian was not going south after all. From 13–15 May, the French commander concentrated his army behind the Bormida River, throwing a bridge of boats across the stream. On 16 May, Moreau sent Victor on a strong reconnaissance east toward Tortona. Ε]
The French crossed the Bormida at a point called The Cedars. At 8:00 am they split into two columns with General of Brigade Luigi Leonardo Colli-Ricci on the left and General of Brigade Gaspard Amédée Gardanne on the right. The 74th Line Infantry acted as an advance guard. Colonel Louis Gareau with two battalions guarded the Bormida bridge. ⎗] The French cavalry crossed the river upstream. Altogether the French employed 7,500 troops in the operation. General-major Adrian Karpovich Denisov, commanding the Cossack screen captured a French officer and learned that the enemy incursion was substantial. He sent appeals for help to Bagration. The 74th Line quickly brushed aside the Cossacks and drove the Allied outposts from Marengo, Spinetta, and Cascina Grossa. ⎘] The outposts were manned by General-major Andreas Karaczay's Advanced Guard, but these troops did not otherwise participate in the ensuing action. ⎗]
General-major Franz Joseph, Marquis de Lusignan, acting division commander in the absence of Michael von Fröhlich, deployed seven battalions and six squadrons of the Lobkowitz Dragoon Regiment Nr. 10. Soon Bagration came up with his Russians and the Allies formed two lines about 2,500 feet (760 m) west of San Giuliano. As the two sides advanced toward each other, the French sang the Marseillaise while the Austrian military bands played. ⎘] Lusignan placed the Weber and Pertussy Grenadier Battalions on the right and the Stuart Infantry Regiment Nr. 18 and Morzin Grenadier Battalion on the left. In second line were the Paar and Schiaffinati Grenadier Battalions. A skirmish line was formed by taking ten soldiers from each company in the front line. Two squadrons of the Lobkowitz Dragoons and some artillery were posted on each flank, with more dragoons in reserve. ⎗]
Denisov reported that the French troops maintained a rolling fire by platoons. He claimed that Bagration's troops hung back in a wood and that neither the Cossacks nor the Austrian dragoons were willing to charge the French infantry. This caused the Austrians to bear the brunt of the combat and they were hustled to the rear by the French. ⎘] Another account stated that Bagration's troops helped repulse the initial attack, but around noon the Allies began to retreat. Finally, Feldmarschall-Leutnant Konrad Valentin von Kaim's 4,800-man Austrian division came up on the left flank. The Cossacks claimed to have wiped out a squadron of the French 1st Hussars, taking 78 prisoners. ⎗] At about 4:00 pm, Moreau realized he was heavily outnumbered and issued the order to retreat. The French carried out their withdrawal in good order. They defended Marengo very stoutly, using the manor house and the streams in the vicinity. ⎙] The French relinquished Marengo at 5:00 pm, crossed the Bormida, and dismantled their bridge by 6:30 pm. ⎗] Suvorov appeared and demanded to know why the French were being allowed to escape. By this time, the French had reached a position where it was impossible to cut them off. ⎙] In another account, Suvorov got to the battlefield earlier and tried to rally the Austrians, who were retreating at that time. ⎗]
Battle of Modena (1799)
The Battle of Modena (12 June 1799) saw a Republican French army commanded by Jacques MacDonald attack a Habsburg Austrian covering force led by Prince Friedrich Franz Xaver of Hohenzollern-Hechingen. The outnumbered Austrians were defeated but in an accidental encounter, MacDonald was painfully wounded by two saber cuts. The action occurred during the War of the Second Coalition, part of a larger conflict known as the French Revolutionary Wars. Modena is a city in northern Italy about 40 kilometres (25 mi) northwest of Bologna.
In the battles of Magnano and Cassano, the Austrians and allied Russian Empire forces swept the French from much of northern Italy in April 1799. MacDonald collected the French occupying forces in south and central Italy into an army and marched north to retrieve the situation. Bursting out of the Apennine Mountains, the French mauled Hohenzollern's division at Modena. MacDonald swung west to fight the Coalition forces. The next action would be the Battle of Trebbia from 17 to 19 June.
- Duffy, Christopher (1999). Eagles Over the Alps: Suvarov in Italy and Switzerland, 1799. Chicago, Ill.: The Emperor's Press. ISBN1-883476-18-6 .
- Smith, Digby (1998). The Napoleonic Wars Data Book. London: Greenhill. ISBN1-85367-276-9 .
This article on military history is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.
This article about a battle in Austrian history is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.
Battle of Magnano, 5 April 1799 - History
In 1798 the Archduke Charles and the Hofkriegsrat at Vienna introduced the first step of a larger reform in the Austrian Army which was completed from 1805 to 1807
General conscription had been introduced in Austria in 1771, but exemptions were granted to several towns and provinces. The areas under conscription were divided into regimental districts (for &lsquoGerman&rsquo infantry regiments). Hungary , the Netherlands and northern Italy , as well nobles and officials, were all excluded from compulsory military service. Some of the areas (Tyrol, northern Italy , and the Netherlands ) relied on free recruiting while in others relied on quotas, such as Hungary , where local officials filled the ranks according to quotas imposed by the Hungarian Diet, and still others relied simply on volunteers.
In 1798 the old regimental numbering system was abandoned. In that year the Grenzer regiments  were separately numbered (1 through 17), and their withdrawal from the infantry sequence vacated the numbers beginning with 60. The term &lsquoline infantry&rsquo was officially introduced in 1798 (e.g., changing Infanterie-Regiment, or &lsquoIR&rsquo, to Linie-Infanterie-Regiment, or &lsquoLIR&rsquo). Further, a ll units, except the Grenzer (on the Borders of the Empire or the Frontier), received the prefix &lsquoK.k.&rsquo for Kaiserliche (Imperial) und königliche (royal).
The Coalition Wars brought many changes. Regiments were disbanded or established according to the current situation. The infantry&rsquos regimental numerical sequence had already been interrupted in 1795 when Infantry Regiment Nr. 48 was disbanded due to heavy losses and overall unreliability (the regiment was recruited in the Northern Italian provinces). In 1798 the 3rd Garrison Regiment was disbanded (without a number), and its rank-and-file transferred to the 2nd Garrison Regiment (Nr. 6). In the same year, four new Hungarian regiments were established. One of them was given the vacant number 48, and the others numbered 60 to 62. The number 63 was given to the Walloon regiment established in 1799.
As a counterpart to the numbering of the infantry regiments, the combined grenadier battalions had existed since 1769 and were never numbered. Officially they were identified by their commander&rsquos name (an analogy to the identification of regiments by their proprietors&rsquo names). In the literature, however, it is possible to encounter these grenadier battalions under an alternative identification, that created by the use of the official numbers of the two or three regiments which had provided their grenadier divisions (division = two companies in the Austrian military terminology) to create the combined battalion. Since 1790 there existed 20 grenadier battalions, of which three were each composed of two grenadier divisions, the other 17 of three divisions. In 1797 the composite battalions were disbanded and the grenadiers returned to their parent regiments. Twenty grenadier battalions were re-established in 1799, only to be again disbanded in 1801.
Other infantry units were also numbered, though on a different basis. First, the light infantry battalions, which were established in 1798 by transformation of different volunteer corps. The battalions were identified in a manner similar to that used for the grenadier battalions, using the commander&rsquos name (there were no proprietors of light infantry battalions) and numbered in sequence from 1 to 15 &ndash number 8 was left vacant because its rank-and-file personnel were in Wurmser&rsquos Corps until the end of the War of the Second Coalition. In 1799&ndash1800, two more battalions were formed (Italian and Dalmatian), sometimes identified with the numbers 16 and 17. The light infantry was disbanded in 1801 and its rank-and-file transferred to the line infantry regiments.
In 1797 a commission was established to modernize the army's equipment, not without resistance from traditionalists. Some proposals were rejected, among them a scheme for numbering the buttons, and introducing black belts.
Most dramatic of the changes introduced by the 1798 regulations, which probably came into force in the following year, was a new coat and, instead of the kasquet, a large leather, crested helmet. Theoretically styled upon classical designs, this headdress consisted of a black leather skullcap 16.5cm high, topped with a raised comb running from front to back, upon which was fixed a crest of black over yellow wool 5cm high. Reinforcing bands ran up the sides of the helmet, usually of black leather, or blackened or shiny brass the front of the helmet bore a large brass plate upon which the Emperor's cipher was embossed. The new jacket was white cloth with ten yellow or white buttons on the breast the collar (now upright), cuffs and turnbacks (the latter now smaller and the skirts less voluminous) were all in the facing color. Shoulder straps were now present on both sides, either in white with piping of the facing color, or vice-versa. From 1798 the white breeches of German infantry extended to below the knee, with half-stockings below, the latter covered by shorter black gaiters. Hungarians retained their light blue pantaloons with black and yellow braid, and their lace-up shoes with a seam at the rear and raised ankles. White or off-white overall trousers probably continued in use on campaign.
A new musket was introduced in 1798, similar to earlier patterns, but of improved construction: with brass fittings, of 17.6mm caliber, measuring 150cm in length, and weighing 4.8kg. The lock-protector was withdrawn.
The distinctive fur cap of grenadiers was retained, with its high front and low rear, which gave rise to its French nickname fauteuil, or 'armchair'. At some time (probably between 1798 and 1805) a black leather front peak was added. The light infantry had the same equipment as the regular line, but wore the 1798 helmet with a brass F.II. cipher instead of a plate, and pike grey coats the coat, breeches and gaiters of the five Italian regiments were of German style, the remainder wearing Hungarian pantaloons.
Light infantry tactics remained largely the same as those of the Freikorps and Grenzers, and in some cases were essentially discouraged in the regular army. Despite the later claim that by 1798 the Austrian army was able to fight in open order (as actually attempted at 2nd Novi or the Bosco in November 1799, resulting in defeat), in April 1800, Melas's chief of staff, Baron Zach, expressed the general reliance on old-fashioned, close and linear formations, an advance &lsquocourageously in closed formation, with bands playing, and keeping their formation&rsquo as being, in his opinion, a guarantee of success. &lsquoUnnecessary skirmishing can only be detrimental &hellip a determined charge delivered in close order &hellip will certainly result in victory with very few casualties.'
In 1798, the Cavalry changed considerably. The Karabiniers were changed into Kürassiere, the Chevauxlegers into Light Dragoons, so it happened that, at end of the 18th century, the German cavalry (the Hussars were considered to be Hungarian) had only two branches of service: Kürassiere and Dragoner. At the same time, from the 5th d ivisions (i.e., the 9 th and 10 th squadrons) of the other Hussaren-Regiments, were formed two new units, the 5th and 7th Hussars Regiments the Galician horse-volunteers became the 2nd Uhlanen-Regiment and finally, from parts of other cavalry units, were organized one new Kürassier - Regiment and 2 new Dragoner-Regimenter. From the former Freikorps of Bussy, Rohan, Carneville, and Bourbon, was formed a chasseurs regiment, the Jäger-zu-Pferd Regiment Bussy of 8 squadrons with 1300 men.
To the hussars was added the newly constituted Kroatisch-Slavonische-Hussaren-Regiment, born in Slavonia in 1793 and formed from the Wurmserischen Freikorps. With the final reform act, the establishment of every hussars regiment became 8 squadrons (in 4 divisions).
Tactically there was lack of precise instructions for multi-regiment formations and large-scale exercises. The consequences of this practice of scattering imperial cavalry in small bodies were very serious. It greatly reduced their combat effectiveness &mdashsingle regiments and brigades were often defeated by French brigades and divisions. One reason for such careful use of cavalry was their relative low numbers. Austria was a mountainous country and had low ratio of cavalry to infantry.
In 1798 the Austrian cavalry improved their firepower by changing its firearms:
- Carbine for hussars, the M 1798: 84.5cm long, weighing 2.45kg.
- Carbine for dragoons, M 1798: 123.5cm long, weighing 3.25kg.
- Rifle for cavalry, M 1798: 71cm long, weighing 2.65kg.
The Hussar cap was a felt cylinder bearing a black and yellow cloth rosette with a braid loop on the front, and a black over yellow plume above a yellow pompon with black centre. Cords in the mixed black and yellow national colors fastened around the upper edge of the cap, falling as 'raquettes' on the right side. In 1798, this cap was replaced by a true shako, an 8-inch-high cylinder of rigid felt, with a black leather peak and chinstrap, but with rosette, pompon and cap lines as before. The 14-inch feather plume (upon a wire or whalebone foundation) could be enclosed in a black waterproof cover. The 1798 regulation allowed the hussars to wear grey overalls with buttons for use on campaign. They were reinforced with leather on the side on which the saber was worn. The standard long boots were cut in the national style with strong, durable decoration on top. The jacket of the uhlans was green with red lapels for all regiments. The pennons on lances were black over yellow. All wore green trousers. The cuirassiers wore white coats and breeches. During campaign they wore grey overalls over, or instead of, their tight elegant breeches. The boots rose to below the knee. Until 1792, the dragoon regiments had 2 squadrons of chevauxlegers and 6 squadrons of dragoons each. In 1799-1801 there were no longer dragoons and chevauxlegers but all were light dragoons. They wore the Dragoner helm, dark green jackets and white pants.
The 1798 light dragoon uniform was identical in cut and equipment to that of the Cuirassiers, the coloring and lack of a cuirass being the most obvious differences. The helmet was identical, but the coat was made of dark green cloth, with a 2-inch standing collar, which like the cuffs and piping of the turnbacks, was in the facing-color. The waistcoat, forage cap, and gloves were also dark green the cartridge box belt was 23 inches wide, and al1 men were armed with carbines having brass fittings.
The organization of the artillery was centered around the tactical role it was assigned. There were initially three field artillery regiments, a Bombardier Corps of men with additional training, and an Artillery Fusilier Battalion which provided the unskilled labor. A fourth field regiment was created in February 1802, partly from the now-disbanded Artillery Fusiliers, and the number of companies per regiment increased during the period.
In wartime, the artillery regiments were split into small detachments to serve the 'battalion guns' (Liniengeschutz) that were attached to each regiment, with infantrymen providing the untrained artillery laborers the gun were usually 3-pdrs. Light pieces which capable of being transported on horse- or mule-back were called Gebirgsgeschütze, or mountain-guns.
The artillery reserve was crewed by the Bombardier Corps and personnel from the garrison or fortress artillery reserve batteries usually comprised four guns and two howitzers or two guns and one howitzer as a brigade (Kolonne) asset. There were, in addition, 'cavalry batteries' of light 6-pdrs whose officers and NCOs were mounted but whose gunners sat astride a caisson or 'Wurst-wagen', and were thus much less mobile than proper horse artillery.
The artillery uniform was styled on that of the infantry, including the use of the combed or crested helmet of 1798 &ndash 1803 (with a red crest for the rank-and-file), the jackets brown with red facings (light blue facings for the Handlanger Corps). Prior to 1798 a low round hat was worn, after which a bicorne was adopted.
III. Division [ edit | edit source ]
The Third Division and the Reserve also crossed at Kehl, and then divided into two columns, III. Division traveling through the Black Forest via Oberkirch, and the Reserve, with most of the artillery park, via the valleys at Freiburg im Breisgau, where the horses would find more forage, and then over the mountains past the Titisee to Loffingen and Hüfingen. ⎤] At the Battle of Ostrach, after more than 15 hours of general engagement, the Austrians flanked the III. Division's left wing and pressed the entire Division back to the Pfullendorf heights. ⎪] At the Battle of Stockach, Saint-Cyr and Vandamme were to execute simultaneous attacks on the Austrian right flank, Saint-Cyr on the front and Vandamme from the rear the attacks failed when Archduke Charles moved support troops from the left flank. ⎫]
- 180th Demi-brigade (two battalions)
- 2nd Dragoons (four squadrons)
- 1st Demi-brigade (two battalions)
- 50th Demi-brigade (two battalions)
- 8th Light Horse (Chasseurs à Cheval)
- 10th Light Horse (Chasseurs à Cheval)
- 3rd Horse Artillery (5th and 20th Company)
- 3rd Foot Artillery (4th and 6th Company)
- 3rd Battalion Sappers (3rd Company)
Two squadrons from the 8th or the 10th Light Horse were detached to support Vandamme's flanking move to Stuttgart. ⎜]
Napoleon abdicates the throne and is exiled to Elba
On April 11, 1814, Napoleon Bonaparte, emperor of France and one of the greatest military leaders in history, abdicates the throne, and, in the Treaty of Fontainebleau, is banished to the Mediterranean island of Elba.
The future emperor was born in Ajaccio, Corsica, on August 15, 1769. After attending military school, he fought during the French Revolution of 1789 and rapidly rose through the military ranks, leading French troops in a number of successful campaigns throughout Europe in the late 1700s. By 1799, he had established himself at the top of a military dictatorship. In 1804, he became emperor of France and continued to consolidate power through his military campaigns, so that by 1810 much of Europe came under his rule. Although Napoleon developed a reputation for being power-hungry and insecure, he is also credited with enacting a series of important political and social reforms that had a lasting impact on European society, including judiciary systems, constitutions, voting rights for all men and the end of feudalism. Additionally, he supported education, science and literature. His Code Napoleon, which codified key freedoms gained during the French Revolution, such as religious tolerance, remains the foundation of French civil law.
In 1812, thinking that Russia was plotting an alliance with England, Napoleon launched an invasion against the Russians that eventually ended with his troops retreating from Moscow and much of Europe uniting against him. In 1814, Napoleon’s broken forces gave up and Napoleon offered to step down in favor of his son. When this offer was rejected, he abdicated and was sent to Elba. In March 1815, he escaped his island exile and returned to Paris, where he regained supporters and reclaimed his emperor title, Napoleon I, in a period known as the Hundred Days. However, in June 1815, he was defeated at the bloody Battle of Waterloo. Napoleon’s defeat ultimately signaled the end of France’s domination of Europe. He abdicated for a second time and was exiled to the remote island of Saint Helena, in the southern Atlantic Ocean, where he lived out the rest of his days. He died at age 52 on May 5, 1821, possibly from stomach cancer, although some theories contend he was poisoned.
Related Research Articles
The Battle of Trebbia or the Napoleonic Battle of the Trebbia was fought near the Trebbia River in northern Italy between the joint Russian and Habsburg army under Alexander Suvorov and the Republican French army of Jacques MacDonald. Though the opposing armies were approximately equal in numbers, the Austro-Russians severely defeated the French, sustaining about 6,000 casualties while inflicting losses of 12,000 to 16,500 on their enemies. The War of the Second Coalition engagement occurred west of Piacenza, a city located 70 kilometres (43 mi) southeast of Milan.
The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of sweeping military conflicts lasting from 1792 until 1802 and resulting from the French Revolution. They pitted France against Great Britain, the Holy Roman Empire, Prussia, Russia, and several other monarchies. They are divided in two periods: the War of the First Coalition (1792) and the War of the Second Coalition (1798). Initially confined to Europe, the fighting gradually assumed a global dimension. After a decade of constant warfare and aggressive diplomacy, France had conquered a wide array of territories, from the Italian Peninsula and the Low Countries in Europe to the Louisiana Territory in North America. French success in these conflicts ensured the spread of revolutionary principles over much of Europe.
The War of the Second Coalition (1798) was the second war on revolutionary France by most of the European monarchies, led by Britain, Austria and Russia, and including the Ottoman Empire, Portugal, Naples, various German monarchies and Sweden, though Prussia did not join this coalition and Spain supported France.
In the First Battle of Zurich on 4 – 7 June 1799, French general André Masséna was forced to yield the city to the Austrians under Archduke Charles and retreat beyond the Limmat, where he managed to fortify his positions, resulting in a stalemate.
The Roman Republic was proclaimed on 15 February 1798 after Louis-Alexandre Berthier, a general of Napoleon, had invaded the city of Rome on 10 February. The republic became one of the Italian "sister republics" of Revolutionary France. It was placed under the government of France - the Directory - and comprised territory conquered from the Papal States. Pope Pius VI was exiled to France and died there in August 1799. The republic immediately took control of the other two former-papal revolutionary administrations, the Tiberina Republic and the Anconine Republic. The Roman Republic proved short-lived, as Neapolitan troops restored the Papal States in October 1799.
The War of the Fifth Coalition was a European conflict in 1809 that was part of the Napoleonic Wars and the Coalition Wars. The main conflict took place in central Europe between the Austrian Empire of Francis I and Napoleon's French Empire. The French were supported by their client states, including the Kingdom of Italy, the Confederation of the Rhine and the Duchy of Warsaw. Austria was supported by the Fifth Coalition which included the United Kingdom, Portugal, Spain and the Kingdoms of Sardinia and Sicily, though the latter two took no part in the fighting. By the start of 1809 much of the French army was committed to the Peninsular War against Britain, Spain and Portugal. After France withdrew 108,000 soldiers from Germany, Austria attacked France to seek the recovery of territories lost in the 1803 War of the Third Coalition. The Austrians hoped Prussia would support them as their former ally, but Prussia chose to remain neutral.
By 1799, the French Revolutionary Wars had resumed after a period of relative peace in 1798. The Second Coalition had organized against France, with Great Britain allying with Russia, Austria, the Ottoman Empire, and several of the German and Italian states. While Napoleon's army was still embroiled in Egypt, the allies prepared campaigns in Italy, Switzerland, and the Netherlands.
The French Revolutionary Wars continued from 1799 with the French fighting the forces of the Second Coalition. Napoleon Bonaparte had returned from Egypt and taken control of the French government. He prepared a new campaign, sending Moreau to the Rhine frontier and personally going to take command in the Alps, where French forces had been driven almost out of Italy in 1799.
The Battle of Cassano d'Adda was fought on 27 April 1799 near Cassano d'Adda, about 28 km (17 mi) ENE of Milan. It resulted in a victory for the Austrians and Russians under Alexander Suvorov over Jean Moreau's French army. The action took place during the War of the Second Coalition during the larger conflict known as the French Revolutionary Wars.
The [First] Battle of Stockach occurred on 25 March 1799, when French and Austrian armies fought for control of the geographically strategic Hegau region in present-day Baden-Württemberg. In the broader military context, this battle constitutes a keystone in the first campaign in southwestern Germany during the Wars of the Second Coalition, part of the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Battle of Modena may refer to:
Johann Josef Cajetan Graf von Klenau, Freiherr von Janowitz was a field marshal in the Habsburg army. Klenau, the son of a Bohemian noble, joined the Habsburg military as a teenager and fought in the War of Bavarian Succession against Prussia, Austria's wars with the Ottoman Empire, the French Revolutionary Wars, and the Napoleonic Wars, in which he commanded a corps in several important battles.
In the Battle of Magnano on 5 April 1799, an Austrian army commanded by Pál Kray defeated a French army led by Barthélemy Schérer. In subsequent battles, the Austrians and their Russian allies drove the French out of nearly all of Italy. This action was fought during the War of the Second Coalition, part of the French Revolutionary Wars.
Friedrich Franz Xaver Prince of Hohenzollern-Hechingen was an Austrian general. He joined the Austrian military and fought against the Kingdom of Prussia, Ottoman Turkey, and the First French Republic. He was promoted to the rank of general officer during the French Revolutionary Wars. During the Napoleonic Wars, he led a division in 1805 and an army corps in 1809. He was Proprietor (Inhaber) of an Austrian cavalry regiment from 1802 to 1844.
Friedrich Freiherr (Baron) von Hotze, was a Swiss-born general in the Austrian army during the French Revolutionary Wars. He campaigned in the Rhineland during the War of the First Coalition and in Switzerland in the War of the Second Coalition, notably at Battle of Winterthur in late May 1799, and the First Battle of Zurich in early June 1799. He was killed at the Second Battle of Zurich.
The Battle of Winterthur was an important action between elements of the Army of the Danube and elements of the Habsburg army, commanded by Friedrich Freiherr von Hotze, during the War of the Second Coalition, part of the French Revolutionary Wars. The small town of Winterthur lies 18 kilometers (11 mi) northeast of Zürich, in Switzerland. Because of its position at the junction of seven roads, the army that held the town controlled access to most of Switzerland and points crossing the Rhine into southern Germany. Although the forces involved were small, the ability of the Austrians to sustain their 11-hour assault on the French line resulted in the consolidation of three Austrian forces on the plateau north of Zürich, leading to the French defeat a few days later.
The Battle of Feldkirch saw some French corps led by André Masséna attack a weaker Austrian force under Franz Jellacic. Defending fortified positions, the Austrians repulsed all of the French columns, though the struggle lasted until nightfall. This and other French setbacks in southern Germany soon caused Masséna to go on the defensive. The War of the Second Coalition combat occurred at the Austrian town of Feldkirch, Vorarlberg, located 158 kilometres (98 mi) west of Innsbruck.
The First Battle of Marengo or Battle of San Giuliano saw Republican French soldiers under General of Division Jean Victor Marie Moreau launch a reconnaissance in force against a larger force of Habsburg Austrian and Imperial Russian troops led by Field Marshal Alexander Suvorov. The French enjoyed initial success, pressing back their opponents. However, large Austrian and Russian reinforcements soon arrived, causing the French to withdraw into Alessandria. This War of the Second Coalition action occurred near the town of Spinetta Marengo, located just east of Alessandria in northwest Italy.
The Second Battle of Marengo or Battle of Cascina Grossa saw French troops under General of Division Jean Victor Marie Moreau clash with a force of Austrian soldiers led by Feldmarschall-Leutnant Heinrich von Bellegarde. The early fighting between Emmanuel Grouchy's division and Bellegarde was inconclusive. However, late in the day Moreau committed Paul Grenier's French division to the struggle and the Austrians were driven from the field. This War of the Second Coalition battle occurred near Spinetta Marengo which is just east of Alessandria, Italy.
The Second Battle of Novi or Battle of Bosco saw a Republican French corps under General of Division Laurent Gouvion Saint-Cyr face a division of Habsburg Austrian soldiers led by Feldmarschall-Leutnant Andreas Karaczay. For several hours the Austrians defended themselves stoutly, relying on their superior cavalry and artillery. By the end of the day the French and allied Poles routed the Austrians from their positions in this War of the Second Coalition action. Novi Ligure is south of Alessandria, Italy.
Battle of Lexington Monument
Sacred to Liberty & the Rights of mankind. The Freedom & Independence of America, Sealed and defended with the blood of her sons.
This Monument is erected by the inhabitants of Lexington, under the patronage & at the expense of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, to the memory of their fellow citizens, Ensign Robert Munroe, Mess. Jonas Parker, Samuel Hadley, Jonathan Harrington Jun.r, Isaac Muzzy, Caleb Harrington and John Brown of Lexington, Ishael Porter of Woburn, who fell on this field, the first victims to the sword of British tyranny & oppression, on the morning of the ever memorable nineteenth of April, An. Dom. 1775.
Built in the year 1799.
The remains of those who fell
in the Battle of Lexington were brought here from the old cemetery, April 20, 1835, and buried within the railing in the front of this monument.
Erected 1799 by Citizens of Lexington.
Topics. This historical marker monument is listed in these topic lists: Notable Events &bull Notable Places &bull War, US Revolutionary. A significant historical year for this entry is 1775.
Location. 42° 26.969′ N, 71° 13.878′ W. Marker is in Lexington, Massachusetts, in Middlesex County. Marker is on Massachusetts Avenue, on the right when traveling west. Marker is located on the Battle Green in Lexington. Touch for map. Marker is in this post office area: Lexington MA 02420, United States of America. Touch for directions.
Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within walking distance of this marker. Cambridge Farms (within shouting distance of this marker) Marrett and Nathan Munroe House (within shouting distance of this marker) Lexington Green (within shouting distance of this marker) This Flag Pole (within shouting distance of this marker) Lexington Meeting Houses (within shouting distance of this marker) The Battle Green (within shouting distance of this marker) House of Jonathan Harrington (about 300 feet away, measured in a direct line) Line of the Minutemen (about 300 feet away). Touch for a list and map of all markers in Lexington.
Also see . . .
1. Battle of Lexington. (Submitted on April 15, 2009, by Bill Coughlin of Woodland Park, New Jersey.)