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In a ceremony at the White House, Egyptian President Anwar el-Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin sign a historic peace agreement, ending three decades of hostilities between Egypt and Israel and establishing diplomatic and commercial ties.
Less than two years earlier, in an unprecedented move for an Arab leader, Sadat traveled to Jerusalem, Israel, to seek a permanent peace settlement with Egypt’s Jewish neighbor after decades of conflict. Sadat’s visit, in which he met with Begin and spoke before Israel’s parliament, was met with outrage in most of the Arab world. Despite criticism from Egypt’s regional allies, Sadat continued to pursue peace with Begin, and in September 1978 the two leaders met again in the United States, where they negotiated an agreement with U.S. President Jimmy Carter at Camp David, Maryland. The Camp David Accords, the first peace agreement between the state of Israel and one of its Arab neighbors, laid the groundwork for diplomatic and commercial relations. Seven months later, a formal peace treaty was signed.
READ MORE: How Jimmy Carter Brokered a Hard-Won Peace Deal Between Israel and Egypt
For their achievement, Sadat and Begin were jointly awarded the 1978 Nobel Prize for Peace. Sadat’s peace efforts were not so highly acclaimed in the Arab world–Egypt was suspended from the Arab League, and on October 6, 1981, Muslim extremists assassinated Sadat in Cairo. Nevertheless, the peace process continued without Sadat, and in 1982 Egypt formally established diplomatic relations with Israel.
March 26, 1979 | Israel and Egypt Sign Peace TreatyBill Fitz-Patrick/Jimmy Carter Library Menachem Begin, Jimmy Carter and Anwar Sadat in September 1978 after signing the Camp David Accords, which provided the framework for the Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty of 1979.
Learn about key events in history and their connections to today.
On March 26, 1979, in a ceremony hosted by U.S. President Jimmy Carter at the White House, Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin and Egyptian President Anwar Sadat signed the Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty, the first peace treaty between Israel and an Arab country.
The New York Times wrote, 𠇊t the signing ceremony, all three leaders offered prayers that the treaty would bring true peace to the Middle East and end the enmity that has erupted into war four times since Israel declared its independence on May 14, 1948.”
Israel and Egypt had been in a state of war since the Arab-Israeli War, which occurred immediately after the founding of Israel. Following the 1973 Yom Kippur War, the two nations began indirect peace negotiations through U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, who engaged in “shuttle diplomacy” by meeting with each nation’s representatives.
President Carter took a different approach when he took office in 1977, by inviting Israeli and Egyptian leaders to multi-lateral talks. In 1978, President Carter, President Sadat and Prime Minister Begin met secretly at Camp David in Maryland, where they agreed to the framework for the peace treaty and for the establishment of self-rule for Palestinians living in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. Both Sadat and Begin were awarded the 1978 Nobel Peace Prize for the Camp David Accords.
The three men continued working toward a formal treaty. “The treaty was the result of months of grueling, often frustrating negotiations that finally were concluded early this morning,” wrote The Times. Under the treaty, the two nations agreed to end the state of war and to establish diplomatic relations. Egypt became the first Arab country to recognize Israel. Israel agreed to withdraw from the Sinai Peninsula, which it had seized from Egypt in the Six-Day War of 1967, while Egypt agreed to grant Israeli ships access to the Suez Canal.
Despite the signing of the historic agreement, there “were signs that differences between Egypt and Israel were far from over,” The Times noted. Begin refused to mention Sadat by name in his speech and referred to Jerusalem “in a context that was likely to prove embarrassing to Mr. Sadat.” Meanwhile, Sadat intended to mention the “grave injustice” that had been inflicted on Palestinians, a remark that “would have been provocative to Mr. Begin,” according to The Times. It was reported that Sadat inadvertently skipped that section of his speech, however.
The Arab world reacted angrily to the peace treaty, as it had to the Camp David Accords, which it saw as a trayal of the Arab cause,” said The Times. As a result, the Arab League suspended Egypt. Sadat became unpopular among his fellow Arab leaders and his people in 1981, he was assassinated by Islamic extremists.
Connect to Today:
In February 2012, The Times reported that Egypt is “threatening to review the 1979 peace treaty” if the United States cuts aid over Egypt’s crackdown on American nonprofit groups. Some analysts believe that Egypt would have to leave the treaty in place because it is 𠇊 linchpin of regional stability” and 𠇎nsures peaceful borders at a time when Egypt can ill afford the cost of a military buildup and its economy teeters on the brink of collapse.”
What are your thoughts on the extent to which Egypt and Israel have honored the treaty? In your opinion, how has the United States, as broker of the treaty, supported peace between the two countries? Given what you know about the region, what do you think the consequences would be for Egypt, Israel and the United States if Egypt did review the treaty?
Camp David Accords and the Arab-Israeli Peace Process
The Camp David Accords, signed by President Jimmy Carter, Egyptian President Anwar Sadat, and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin in September 1978, established a framework for a historic peace treaty concluded between Israel and Egypt in March 1979. President Carter and the U.S. Government played leading roles in creating the opportunity for this agreement to occur. From the start of his administration, Carter and his Secretary of State, Cyrus Vance, pursued intensive negotiations with Arab and Israeli leaders, hoping to reconvene the Geneva Conference, which had been established in December 1973 to seek an end to the Arab-Israeli dispute.
As Carter and Vance met with individual leaders from Arab countries and Israel during the spring of 1977, negotiations for a return to Geneva appeared to gain some momentum. On May 17, 1977, an Israeli election upset stunned the Carter administration as the moderate Israeli Labor Party lost for the first time in Israel’s history. Menachem Begin, the leader of the conservative Likud Party and the new Israeli Prime Minister, appeared intractable on the issue of exchanging land for peace. His party’s commitment to “greater Israel” left Carter with an even more challenging situation during the summer of 1977.
In addition to the new reality of a Likud government in Israel, long-standing rivalries among Arab leaders also played a role in blocking substantive progress in negotiations for a Geneva conference. By early November, Egyptian President Sadat found himself frustrated by the lack of movement and made a dramatic move, announcing on November 9 that he would be willing to go to Jerusalem. This move stunned the world. Sadat would attempt to break the deadlock and to engage the Israelis directly for a Middle East settlement, eschewing any talk of returning to the Geneva Conference. Sadat’s visit led to direct talks between Egypt and Israel that December, but these talks did not generate substantive progress. By January 1978, the United States returned to a more prominent negotiation role.
During the spring and early summer of 1978, the United States attempted to find common ground with regard to Israeli withdrawal from the Sinai, West Bank, and Gaza. Egypt insisted on an Israeli withdrawal to June 4, 1967 borders in exchange for security arrangements and minor border modifications. Israel rejected Egypt’s insistence on withdrawal, especially from the West Bank and Gaza. It argued instead for some form of Palestinian autonomy during a five-year interim period followed by the possibility of sovereignty after the interim period expired. The impasse over the West Bank and Gaza led Carter to intercede directly in an attempt to resolve the deadlock.
By July 30, as Sadat expressed disappointment over the progress of negotiations and a desire to cut direct contacts off with the Israelis, Carter decided to call for a summit meeting. This meeting would bring Sadat, Begin, and Carter together at the presidential retreat in Maryland at Camp David. On August 8, the White House spokesman formally announced the meeting, which both Begin and Sadat agreed to attend in September.
The Camp David Summit, held from September 5–17, 1978, was a pivotal moment both in the history of the Arab-Israeli dispute and U.S. diplomacy. Rarely had a U.S. President devoted as much sustained attention to a single foreign policy issue as Carter did over the summit’s two-week duration. Carter’s ambitious goals for the talks included breaking the negotiating deadlock and hammering out a detailed Egyptian-Israeli peace agreement. To this end, U.S. Middle East experts produced a draft treaty text, which served as the basis for the negotiations and would be revised numerous times during the Summit. The talks proved extremely challenging, especially when the trilateral format became impossible to sustain. Instead, Carter and Vance met with the Egyptian and Israeli delegations individually over the course of the next twelve days.
The talks ranged over a number of issues, including the future of Israeli settlements and airbases in the Sinai Peninsula, but it was Gaza and the West Bank that continued to pose the most difficulty. Specifically, the delegations were divided over the applicability of United Nations Security Council Resolution 242 to a long-term agreement in the territories, as well as the status of Israel’s settlements during projected negotiations on Palestinian autonomy that would follow a peace treaty. In the end, while the Summit did not produce a formal peace agreement, it successfully produced the basis for an Egyptian-Israeli peace, in the form of two “Framework” documents, which laid out the principles of a bilateral peace agreement as well as a formula for Palestinian self-government in Gaza and the West Bank.
A Time of Peace
While the Bible doesn’t cite any end times peace agreements other than Daniel 9:27, it does mention a time of relative peace Israel enjoys in the last days. The prophet Ezekiel described this time of peace as a time when Israel will be an unprotected land of unwalled villages – a time when Israel will live in great confidence of its safety (Ezekiel 38:11). During this time, a massive coalition of armies will invade Israel from the north (Ezekiel 38:15 Ezekiel 39:2), and Russia will lead them. Known as the Gog of Magog War, the invading nations are as follows:
– Rosh = Russia
– Magog = Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Afghanistan
– Persia = Iran
– Cush = Sudan, Ethiopia
– Put = Libya
– Meshech, Tubal, Gomer, and Beth-togarmah = Turkey
While the recent peace deals with the UAE and Bahrain aren’t the covenant mentioned in Daniel 9:27, I believe they’re setting the stage for the fulfillment of Ezekiel 38-39. The battle lines of the Middle East are being drawn, and nowhere is that more apparent than in the official response to the recently announced deals.
Most predictable among them was Iran’s reaction. According to Al Jazeera, Iran’s Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei accused the United Arab Emirates of betraying the Islamic world and the Palestinians. He promised the Emiratis will be disgraced forever, and the stigma of their betrayal will always be remembered.
It’s clear Tehran stands against this alliance, but the most revealing reaction came from Turkey’s President – Recep Tayyip Erdogan. Erdogan threatened to suspend diplomatic ties with the UAE and withdraw its ambassador after the Gulf state and Israel agreed to normalize relations.
Until recently, this would have been a surprise. After all, Turkey is a longtime ally of Israel. However, since Erdogan rose to power in 2003, he’s slowly dismantled many of Turkey’s democratic institutions. He’s taken an antagonistic stance toward Israel and strengthened Turkey’s ties with Russia and Iran. All that’s left to permanently move Turkey into the Russian/Iranian sphere of influence is a clear break between Turkey and NATO.
While we wait for that moment, the military forces of the three most powerful members of the Gog of Magog alliance – Russia, Iran, and Turkey – are now cooperating in Syria. This puts their joint military forces right on Israel’s border. And not just any border – Israel’s northern border. This is where Ezekiel said the invasion force will come from – north of Israel (Ezekiel 38:15 Ezekiel 39:2). Is this a mere coincidence? I don’t think so. Never in history have these three nations formed an alliance. Now, they’re stationed directly to Israel’s north.
God continues to set the stage for the fulfillment of the Ezekiel 38-39 prophecies. Turkey has made a strategic choice to align itself with Russia and Iran. The UAE and Bahrain have made a strategic choice to align themselves with Israel. If Oman and Saudi Arabia follow suit as expected, it explains why these nations aren’t part of the Gog of Magog alliance. Eventually, Russia, Iran, Turkey, and their allies will launch an overwhelming invasion force against Israel (Ezekiel 38:8-9). When they do, God will destroy them and display His power and glory for all the world to see (Ezekiel 38:23).
On This Day 36 Years Ago: The Signing of the Egypt-Israel Peace Treaty
In 1978, after more than a year of diplomatic efforts, the Camp David Accords were signed, establishing a framework for peace between Egypt and Israel. Egypt had been in a state of declared war with Israel since 1948, punctuated by several short but violent conflicts, including the Six-Day War in 1967. In 1977, U.S. President Jimmy Carter and Secretary of State Cyrus Vance laid the groundwork to get representatives from Egypt and Israel to meet and discuss conditions for ending hostilities and normalizing diplomatic relations. Israel agreed to withdraw its troops from the Sinai Peninsula, and Egypt agreed to officially recognize Israel as a nation. The Egypt-Israel Peace Treaty was signed in a ceremony at the White House on March 26, 1979, and the three leaders—Egyptian President Anwar Sadat, U.S. President Jimmy Carter, and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin—joined hands and shared big smiles. Sadat and B egin were awarded the 1978 Nobel Peace Prize for their work. A couple of years later, President Sadat was assassinated by I slamic extremists from Egypt, angered by his dealings with Israel. The treaty has held for 36 years, despite continued regional tension, the Arab Spring, and turmoil in the leadership of Egypt.
Egyptian President Anwar Sadat, U.S. President Jimmy Carter, and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin clasp hands on the north lawn of the White House in Washington, D.C., on March 26, 1979, as they completed the signing of the peace treaty between Egypt and Israel. #
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Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty
Sixteen months after Sadat’s visit to Israel, the Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty was signed in Washington. It contains nine articles, a military annex, an annex dealing with the relations between the parties, and agreed minutes interpreting the main articles of the treaty among them were Article 6, the withdrawal schedule, exchange of ambassadors, security arrangements, and the agreement relating to the autonomy talks. The latter issue was contained in a letter addressed by President Sadat and Prime Minister Begin to President Carter. In a separate Israel-U.S. Memorandum of Agreement concluded on the same day, the U.S. spelled out its commitments to Israel in case the treaty was violated, the role of the UN, and the future supply of military and economic aid to Israel.
The Government of the Arab Republic of Egypt and the Government of the State of Israel
Convinced of the urgent necessity of the establishment of a just, comprehensive, and lasting peace in the Middle East in accordance with Security Council Resolutions 242 and 338
Reaffirming their adherence to the “Framework for Peace in the Middle East Agreed at Camp David” dated 17 September 1978
Noting that the aforementioned Framework as appropriate is intended to constitute a basis for peace not only between Egypt and Israel but also between Israel and each of its other Arab neighbors which is prepared to negotiate peace with it on this basis
Desiring to bring to an end the state of war between them and to establish a peace in which every state in the area can live in security
Convinced that the conclusion of a Treaty of Peace between Egypt and Israel is an important step in the search for comprehensive peace in the area and for the attainment of settlement of the Arab-Israeli conflict in all its aspects
Inviting the other Arab parties to this dispute to join the peace process with Israel guided by and based on the principles of the aforementioned Framework
Desiring as well to develop friendly relations and cooperation between themselves in accordance with the United Nations Charter and the principles of international law governing international relations in times of peace
Agree to the following provisions in the free exercise of their sovereignty, in order to implement the “Framework for the Conclusion of a Peace Treaty Between Egypt and Israel.”
- The state of war between the Parties will be terminated and peace will be established between them upon the exchange of instruments of ratification of this Treaty.
- Israel will withdraw all its armed forces and civilians from the Sinai behind the international boundary between Egypt and mandated Palestine, as provided in the annexed protocol (Annex I), and Egypt will resume the exercise of its full sovereignty over the Sinai.
- Upon completion of the interim withdrawal provided for in Annex I, the parties will establish normal and friendly relations, in accordance with Article III (3).
The permanent boundary between Egypt and Israel is the recognized international boundary between Egypt and the former mandated territory of Palestine, as shown on the map at Annex II, without prejudice to the issue of the status of the Gaza Strip. The Parties recognize this boundary as inviolable. Each will respect the territorial integrity of the other, including their territorial waters and airspace.
- The Parties will apply between them the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations and the principles of international law governing relations among states in times of peace. In particular:
- They recognize and will respect each other’s sovereignty, territorial integrity, and political independence
- They recognize and will respect each other’s right to live in peace within their secure and recognized boundaries
- They will refrain from the threat or use of force, directly or indirectly, against each other and will settle all disputes between them by peaceful means.
- In order to provide maximum security for both Parties on the basis of reciprocity, agreed security arrangements will be established including limited force zones in Egyptian and Israeli territory, and United Nations Forces and observers, described in detail as to nature and timing in Annex I, and other security arrangements the Parties may agree upon.
- The Parties agree to the stationing of United Nations personnel in areas described in Annex I. The Parties agree not to request withdrawal of the United Nations personnel and that these personnel will not be removed unless such removal is approved by the Security Council of the United Nations, with the affirmative vote of the five Permanent Members, unless the Parties otherwise agree.
- A Joint Commission will be established to facilitate the implementation of the Treaty, as provided for in Annex I.
- The security arrangements provided for in Paragraphs 1 and 2 of this Article may at the request of either party be reviewed and amended by mutual agreement of the Parties.
- Ships of Israel, and cargoes destined for or coming from Israel, shall enjoy the right of free passage through the Suez Canal and its approaches through the Gulf of Suez and the Mediterranean Sea on the basis of the Constantinople Convention of 1888, applying to all nations, Israeli nationals, vessels and cargoes, as well as persons, vessels and cargoes destined for or coming from Israel, shall be accorded non-discriminatory treatment in all matters connected with usage of the canal.
- The Parties consider the Strait of Tiran and the Gulf of Aqaba to be international waterways open to all nations for unimpeded and non-suspendable freedom of navigation and overflight. The parties will respect each other’s right to navigation and overflight for access to either country through the Strait of Tiran and the Gulf of Aqaba.
- This Treaty does not affect and shall not be interpreted as affecting in any way the rights and obligations of the Parties under the Charter of the United Nations.
- The Parties undertake to fulfill in good faith their obligations under this Treaty, without regard to action or inaction of any other party and independently of any instrument external to this Treaty.
- They further undertake to take all the necessary measures for the application in their relations of the provisions of the multilateral conventions to which they are parties, including the submission of appropriate notification to the Secretary General of the United Nations and other depositaries of such conventions.
- The Parties undertake not to enter into any obligation in conflict with this Treaty.
- Subject to Article 103 of the United Nations Charter in the event of a conflict between the obligation of the Parties under the present Treaty and any of their other obligations, the obligations under this Treaty will be binding and implemented.
- Disputes arising out of the application or interpretation of this Treaty shall be resolved by negotiations.
- Any such disputes which cannot be settled by negotiations shall be resolved by conciliation or submitted to arbitration.
The Parties agree to establish a claims commission for the mutual settlement of all financial claims.
- This Treaty shall enter into force upon exchange of instruments of ratification.
- This Treaty supersedes the Agreement between Egypt and Israel of September 1975.
- All protocols, annexes, and maps attached to this Treaty shall be regarded as an integral part hereof.
- The Treaty shall be communicated to the Secretary General of the United Nations for registration in accordance with the provisions of Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations.
Annex I: Protocol Concerning Israeli Withdrawal and Security Agreements
- Israel will complete withdrawal of all its armed forces and civilians from the Sinai not later than three years from the date of exchange of instruments of ratification of this Treaty.
- To ensure the mutual security of the Parties, the implementation of phased withdrawal will be accompanied by the military measures and establishment of zones set out in this Annex and in Map 1, hereinafter referred to as “the Zones.”
- The withdrawal from the Sinai will be accomplished in two phases:
- The interim withdrawal behind the line from east of El-Arish to Ras Mohammed as delineated on Map 2 within nine months from the date of exchange of instruments of ratification of this Treaty
- The final withdrawal from the Sinai behind the international boundary not later than three years from the date of exchange of instruments of ratification of this Treaty.
Determination of Final Lines and Zones
- In order to provide maximum security for both Parties after the final withdrawal, the lines and the Zones delineated on Map 1 are to be established and organized as follows:
- Zone A:
- Zone A is bounded on the east by Line A (red line) and on the west by the Suez Canal and the east coast of the Gulf of Suez, as shown on Map 1
- An Egyptian armed force of one mechanized infantry division and its military installations, and field fortifications, will be in this Zone
- The main elements of that Division will consist of:
i. Three mechanized infantry brigades
iii. Seven field artillery battalions including up to 126 artillery pieces
iv. Seven anti-aircraft artillery battalions including individual surface-to-air missiles and up to 126 anti-aircraft guns of 37 mm and above
vi. Up to 480 armored personnel vehicles of all types
vii. Up to a total of twenty-two thousand personnel
- Zone B is bounded by Line B (green line) on the east and by Line A (red line) on the west as shown on Map 1
- Egyptian border units of four battalions equipped with light weapons and wheeled vehicles will provide security and supplement the civil police in maintaining order in Zone B. The main elements in the four Border Battalions will consist of up to a total of four thousand personnel
- Land based, short range, low power, coastal warning points of the border patrol units may be established on the coast of this Zone
- There will be in Zone B field fortifications and military installations for the four border battalions
- Zone C is bounded by Line B (green line) on the west and the International Boundary and the Gulf of Aqaba on the east, as shown on Map 1
- Only United Nations Forces and Egyptian civil police will be stationed in Zone C
- The Egyptian civil police armed with light weapons will perform normal police functions within this Zone
- The United Nations Force will be deployed within Zone C and perform its functions as defined in Article VI of this Annex
- The United Nations Force will be stationed mainly in camps located within the following stationing areas shown on Map 1, and will establish its precise locations after consultations with Egypt:
i. In that part of the area in the Sinai lying within about 20 km. of the Mediterranean Sea and adjacent to the International Boundary
ii. In the Sharm el Sheikh area
- Zone D is bounded by Line D (blue line) on the east and the international boundary on the west, as shown on Map 1
- In this Zone there will be an Israeli limited force of four infantry battalions, their military installations, and field fortifications, and United Nations observers
- The Israeli forces in Zone D will not include tanks, artillery, and anti-aircraft missiles, except individual surface-to-air missiles
- The main elements of the four Israeli infantry battalions will consist of up to 180 armored personnel vehicles of all types and up to a total of four thousand personnel
- Access across the international boundary shall only be permitted through entry check points designated by each Party and under its control. Such access shall be in accordance with laws and regulations of each country
- Only those field fortifications, military installations, forces, and weapons specifically permitted by this Annex shall be in the Zones.
- Flights of combat aircraft and reconnaissance flights of Egypt and Israel shall take place only over Zones A and D, respectively.
- Only unarmed, non-combat aircraft of Egypt and Israel will be stationed in Zones A and D, respectively.
- Only Egyptian unarmed transport aircraft will take off and land in Zone B and up to eight such aircraft may be maintained in Zone B. The Egyptian border unit may be equipped with unarmed helicopters to perform their functions in Zone B.
- The Egyptian civil police may be equipped with unarmed police helicopters to perform normal police functions in Zone C.
- Only civilian airfields may be built in the Zones.
- Without prejudice to the provisions of this Treaty, only those military aerial activities specifically permitted by this Annex shall be allowed in the Zones and the airspace above their territorial waters.
- Egypt and Israel may base and operate naval vessels along the coasts of Zones A and D, respectively.
- Egyptian coast guard boats, lightly armed, may be stationed and operate in the territorial waters of Zone B to assist the border units in performing their functions in this Zone.
- Egyptian civil police equipped with light boats, lightly armed, shall perform normal police functions within the territorial waters of Zone C.
- Nothing in this Annex shall be considered as derogating from the right of innocent passage of the naval vessels of either party.
- Only civilian maritime ports and installations may be built in the Zones.
- Without prejudice to the provisions of this Treaty, only those naval activities specifically permitted by this Annex shall be allowed in the Zones and in their territorial waters.
Egypt and Israel may establish and operate early warning systems only in Zones A and D respectively.
United Nations Operations
- The Parties will request the United Nations to provide forces and observers to supervise the implementation of this Annex and employ their best efforts to prevent any violation of its terms.
- With respect to these United Nations Forces and observers, as appropriate, the Parties agree to request the following arrangements:
- Operation of check points, reconnaissance patrols, and observation posts along the international boundary and Line B, and within Zone C
- Periodic verification of the implementation of the provisions of this Annex will be carried out not less than twice a month unless otherwise agreed by the Parties
- Additional verifications within 48 hours after the receipt of a request from either Party
- Ensuring the freedom of navigation through the Strait of Tiran in accordance with Article V of the Treaty of Peace.
- The arrangements described in this Article for each zone will be implemented in Zones A, B, and C by the United Nations Force and in Zone D by the United Nations Observers.
- United Nations verification teams shall be accompanied by liaison officers of the respective Party.
- The United Nations Force and Observers will report their findings to both Parties.
- The United Nations Force and Observers operating in the Zones will enjoy freedom of movement and other facilities necessary for the performance of their tasks.
- The United Nations Force and Observers are not empowered to authorize the crossing of the international boundary.
- The Parties shall agree on the nations from which the United Nations Force and Observers will be drawn. They will be drawn from nations other than those which are permanent members of the United Nations Security Council.
- The Parties agree that the United Nations should make those command arrangements that will best assure the effective implementation of its responsibilities.
- Upon dissolution of the Joint Commission, a liaison system between the Parties will be established. This liaison system is intended to provide an effective method to assess progress in the implementation of obligations under the present Annex and to resolve any problem that may arise in the course of implementation, and refer other unresolved matters to the higher military authorities of the two countries respectively for consideration. It is also intended to prevent situations resulting from errors or misinterpretation on the part of either Party.
- An Egyptian liaison office will be established in the city of El-Arish and an Israeli liaison office will be established in the city of Beer-Sheba. Each office will be headed by an officer of the respective country, and assisted by a number of officers.
- A direct telephone link between the two offices will be set up and also direct telephone lines with the United Nations Command will be maintained by both offices.
Respect for War Memorials
Each Party undertakes to preserve in good condition the War Memorials erected in the memory of soldiers of the other Party, namely those erected by Egypt in Israel, and shall permit access to such monuments.
The withdrawal of Israeli armed forces and civilians behind the interim withdrawal line, and the conduct of the forces of the Parties and the United Nations prior to the final withdrawal, will be governed by the attached Appendix and Map 2.
Organization of Movements in the Sinai
- The withdrawal of Israeli armed forces and civilians from the Sinai will be accomplished in two phases as described in Article I of Annex I. The description and timing of the withdrawal are included in this Appendix. The Joint Commission will develop and present to the Chief Coordinator of the United Nations Forces in the Middle East the details of these phases not later than one month before the initiation of each phase of withdrawal.
- Both parties agree on the following principles for the sequences of military movements:
- Notwithstanding the provisions of Article IX, Paragraph 2, of this Treaty, until Israeli armed forces complete withdrawal from the current J and M Lines established by the Egyptian-Israeli Agreement of September 1975, hereinafter referred to as the 1975 Agreement, up to the interim withdrawal line, all military arrangements existing under that Agreement will remain in effect, except those military arrangements otherwise provided for in this Appendix
- As Israeli armed forces withdraw, United Nations Forces will immediately enter the evacuated areas to establish interim and temporary buffer zones as shown on Maps 2 and 3, respectively, for the purpose of maintaining a separation of forces. United Nations Forces’ deployment will precede the movement of any other personnel into these areas
- Within a period of seven days after Israeli armed forces have evacuated any area located in Zone A, units of Egyptian armed forces shall deploy in accordance with the provisions of Article II of this Appendix
- Within a period of seven days after Israeli armed forces have evacuated any area located in Zones A or B, Egyptian border units shall deploy in accordance with the provisions of Article II of this Appendix, and will function in accordance with the provisions of Article II of Annex I
- Egyptian civil police will enter evacuated areas immediately after the United Nations Forces to perform normal police functions
- Egyptian naval units shall deploy in the Gulf of Suez in accordance with the provisions of Article II of this Appendix
- Except those movements mentioned above, deployments of Egyptian armed forces and the activities covered in Annex I will be offered in the evacuated areas when Israeli armed forces have completed their withdrawal behind the interim withdrawal line.
Sub-phases of the Withdrawal to the Interim Withdrawal Line
- The withdrawal to the interim withdrawal line will be accomplished in sub-phases as described in this Article and as shown on Map 3. Each sub-phase will be completed within the indicated number of months from the date of the exchange of instruments of ratification of this Treaty:
- First sub-phase: within two months, Israeli armed forces will withdraw from the area of El Arish, including the town of El Arish and its airfield, shown as Area I on Map 3
- Second sub-phase: within three months, Israeli armed forces will withdraw from the area between Line M of the 1975 Agreement and Line A, shown as Area II on Map 3
- Third sub-phase: within five months, Israeli armed forces will withdraw from the area east and south of Area II, shown as Area III on Map 3
- Fourth sub-phase: within seven months, Israeli armed forces will withdraw from the area of El Tor-Ras El Kenisa, shown as Area IV on Map 3
- Fifth sub-phase: Within nine months, Israeli armed forces will withdraw from the remaining areas west of the interim withdrawal line, including the areas of Santa Katrina and the areas east of the Gidi and Mitla Passes, shown as Area V on Map 3, thereby completing Israeli withdrawal behind the interim withdrawal line.
- Up to one-third of the Egyptian armed forces in the Sinai in accordance with the 1975 Agreement will deploy in the portions of Zone A lying within Area I, until the completion of interim withdrawal. Thereafter, Egyptian armed forces as described in Article II of Annex I will be deployed in Zone A up to the limits of the interim zone
- The Egyptian naval activity in accordance with Article IV of Annex I will commence along the coasts of Areas I, III and IV, upon completion of the second, third, and fourth subphases, respectively
- Of the Egyptian border units described in Article II of Annex I, upon completion of the first subphase one battalion will be deployed in Area I. A second battalion will be deployed in Area II upon completion of the second subphase. A third battalion will be deployed in Area III upon completion of the third subphase. The second and third battalions mentioned above may also be deployed in any of the subsequently evacuated areas of the southern Sinai.
- The Parties shall request that United Nations Forces be deployed as necessary to perform the functions described in the Appendix up to the time of completion of final Israeli withdrawal. For that purpose, the Parties agree to the redeployment of the United Nations Emergency Force.
- United Nations Forces will supervise the implementation of this Appendix and will employ their best efforts to prevent any violation of its terms.
- When United Nations Forces deploy in accordance with the provisions of Article and [sic] II of this Appendix, they will perform the functions of verification in limited force zones in accordance with Article VI of Annex I, and will establish check points, reconnaissance patrols, and observation posts in the temporary buffer zones described in Article II above. Other functions of the United Nations Forces which concern the interim buffer zone are described in Article V of this Appendix.
Joint Commission and Liaison
- The Joint Commission referred to in Article IV of this Treaty will function from the date of exchange of instruments of ratification of this Treaty up to the date of completion of final Israeli withdrawal from the Sinai.
- The Joint Commission will be composed of representatives of each Party headed by senior officers. This Commission shall invite a representative of the United Nations when discussing subjects concerning the United Nations, or when either Party requests United Nations presence. Decisions of the Joint Commission will be reached by agreement of Egypt and Israel.
- The Joint Commission will supervise the implementation of the arrangements described in Annex I and this Appendix. To this end, and by agreement of both Parties, it will:
- Coordinate military movements described in this Appendix and supervise their implementation
- Address and seek to resolve any problem arising out of the implementation of Annex I and this Appendix, and discuss any violations reported by the United Nations Force and Observers and refer to the Governments of Egypt and Israel any unresolved problems
- Assist the United Nations Force and Observers in the execution of their mandates, and deal with the timetables of the periodic verification when referred to it by the Parties as provided for in Annex I and this Appendix
- Organize the demarcation of the international boundary and all lines and zones described in Annex I and this Appendix
- Supervise the handing over of the main installations in the Sinai from Israel to Egypt
- Agree on necessary arrangements for finding and returning missing bodies of Egyptian and Israeli soldiers
- Organize the setting up and operation of entry check points along the El-Arish-Ras Mohammed Line in accordance with the provisions of Article 4 of Annex III
- Conduct its operations through the use of joint liaison teams consisting of one Israeli representative and one Egyptian representative, provided from a standing Liaison Group, which will conduct activities as directed by the Joint Commission
- Provide liaison and coordination to the United Nations command implementing provisions of the Treaty, and, through the joint liaison teams, maintain local coordination and cooperation with the United Nations Force stationed in specific areas or United Nations Observers monitoring specific areas for any assistance as needed
- Discuss any other matters which the Parties by agreement may place before it.
Definition of the Interim Buffer Zone and Its Activities
- An interim buffer zone, by which the United Nations Force will effect a separation of Egyptian and Israeli elements, will be established west of and adjacent to the interim withdrawal line as shown on Map 2 after implementation of Israeli withdrawal and deployment behind the interim withdrawal line. Egyptian civil police equipped with light weapons will perform normal police functions within this zone.
- The United Nations Force will operate check points, reconnaissance patrols, and observation posts within the interim buffer zone in order to ensure compliance with the terms of this Article.
- In accordance with arrangements agreed upon by both Parties and to be coordinated by the Joint Commission, Israeli personnel will operate military technical installations at four specific locations shown on Map 2 and designated as T1 (map central coordinate 57163940), T2 (map central coordinate 59351541), T3 (map central coordinate 5933-1527), and T4 (map central coordinate 61130979) under the following principles:
- The technical installations shall be manned by technical and administrative personnel equipped with small arms required for their protection (revolvers, rifles, sub-machine guns, light machine guns, hand grenades, and ammunition), as follows:
i. T1 – up to 150 personnel
ii. T2 and T3 – up to 350 personnel
iii. T4 – up to 200 personnel
- Israeli personnel will not carry weapons outside the sites, except officers who may carry personal weapons
- Only a third party agreed to by Egypt and Israel will enter and conduct inspections within the perimeters of technical installations in the buffer zone. The third party will conduct inspections in a random manner at least once a month. The inspections will verify the nature of the operation of the installations and the weapons and personnel therein. The third party will immediately report to the Parties any divergence from an installation’s visual and electronic surveillance or communications role
- Supply of the installations, visits for technical and administrative purposes, and replacement of personnel and equipment situated in the sites, may occur uninterruptedly from the United Nations check points to the perimeter of the technical installations, after checking and being escorted by only the United Nations Forces
- Israel will be permitted to introduce into its technical installations items required for the proper functioning of the installations and personnel
- As determined by the Joint Commission, Israel will be permitted to:
i. Maintain in its installations fire-fighting and general maintenance equipment as well as wheeled administrative vehicles and mobile engineering equipment necessary for the maintenance of the sites. All vehicles shall be unarmed
ii. Within the sites and in the buffer zone, maintain roads, water lines, and communications cables which serve the site. At each of the three installation locations (T1, T2 and T3, and T4), this maintenance may be performed with up to two unarmed wheeled vehicles and by up to twelve unarmed personnel with only necessary equipment, including heavy engineering equipment if needed. This maintenance may be performed three times a week, except for special problems, and only after giving the United Nations four hours notice. The teams will be escorted by the United Nations
- Movement to and from the technical installations will take place only during daylight hours. Access to, and exit from, the technical installations shall be as follows:
i. T1: Through a United Nations check point, and via the road between Abu Aweigila and the intersection of the Abu Aweigila road and the Gebel Libni road (at Km. 161), as shown on Map 2
ii. T2 and T3: Through a United Nations checkpoint and via the road constructed across the buffer zone to Gebel Katrina, as shown on Map 2
iii. T2, T3, and T4: Via helicopters flying within a corridor at the times, and according to a flight profile, agreed to by the Joint Commission. The helicopters will be checked by the United Nations Force at landing sites outside the perimeter of the installations
- Israel will inform the United Nations Forces at least one hour in advance of each intended movement to and from the installations
- Israel shall be entitled to evacuate sick and wounded and summon medical experts and medical teams at any time after giving immediate notice to the United Nations Forces.
- The details of the above principles and all other matters in this Article requiring coordination by the Parties will be handled by the Joint Commission.
- These technical installations will be withdrawn when Israeli forces withdraw from the interim withdrawal line, or at a time agreed by the parties.
Disposition of Installations and Military Barriers
Disposition of installations and military barriers will be determined by the Parties in accordance with the following guidelines:
- Up to three weeks before Israeli withdrawal from any area, the Joint Commission will arrange for Israeli and Egyptian liaison and technical teams to conduct a joint inspection of all appropriate installations to agree upon condition of structures and articles which will be transferred to Egyptian control and to arrange for such transfer. Israel will declare, at that time, its plans for disposition of installations and articles within the installations.
- Israel undertakes to transfer to Egypt all agreed infrastructures, utilities, and installations intact, inter alia, airfields, roads, pumping stations, and ports. Israel will present to Egypt the information necessary for the maintenance and operation of the facilities. Egyptian technical teams will be permitted to observe and familiarize themselves with the operation of these facilities for a period of up to two weeks prior to transfer.
- When Israel relinquishes Israeli military water points near El-Arish and El Tor, Egyptian technical teams will assume control of those installations and ancillary equipment in accordance with an orderly transfer process arranged beforehand by the Joint Commission. Egypt undertakes to continue to make available at all water supply points the normal quantity of currently available water up to the time Israel withdraws behind the international boundary, unless otherwise agreed in the Joint Commission.
- Israel will make its best effort to remove or destroy all military barriers, including obstacles and minefields, in the areas and adjacent waters from which it withdraws, according to the following concept:
- Military barriers will be cleared first from areas near populations, roads and major installations, and utilities
- For those obstacles and minefields which cannot be removed or destroyed prior to Israeli withdrawal, Israel will provide detailed maps to Egypt and the United Nations through the Joint Commission not later than 15 days before entry of United Nations Forces into the affected areas
- Egyptian engineers will enter those areas after United Nations Forces enter to conduct barrier clearance operations in accordance with Egyptian plans to be submitted prior to implementation.
- Aerial surveillance activities during the withdrawal will be carried out as follows:
- Both Parties request the United States to continue airborne surveillance flights in accordance with previous agreements until the completion of final Israeli withdrawal
- Flight profiles will cover the Limited Forces Zones to monitor the limitations on forces and armaments, and to determine that Israeli armed forces have withdrawn from the areas described in Article II of Annex I, Article II of this Appendix, and Maps 2 and 3, and that these forces thereafter remain behind their lines. Special inspection flights may be flown at the request of either Party or of the United Nations
- Only the main elements in the military organizations of each Party, as described in Annex I and in this Appendix, will be reported.
Exercise of Egyptian Sovereignty
Egypt will resume the exercise of its full sovereignty over evacuated parts of the Sinai upon Israeli withdrawal as provided for in Article I of this Treaty.
Annex II: Map of Israel-Egypt International Boundary
Annex III: Protocol Concerning Relations of the Parties
Diplomatic and Consular Relations
The Parties agree to establish diplomatic and consular relations and to exchange ambassadors upon completion of the interim withdrawal.
Economic and Trade Relations
- The Parties agree to remove all discriminatory barriers to normal economic relations and to terminate economic boycotts of each other upon completion of the interim withdrawal.
- As soon as possible, and not later than six months after the completion of the interim withdrawal, the Parties will enter negotiations with a view to concluding an agreement on trade and commerce for the purpose of promoting beneficial economic relations.
- The Parties agree to establish normal cultural relations following completion of the interim withdrawal.
- They agree on the desirability of cultural exchanges in all fields, and shall, as soon as possible and not later than six months after completion of the interim withdrawal, enter into negotiations with a view to concluding a cultural agreement for this purpose.
- Upon completion of the interim withdrawal, each Party will permit the free movement of the nationals and vehicles of the other into and within its territory according to the general rules applicable to nationals and vehicles of other states. Neither Party will impose discriminatory restrictions on the free movement of persons and vehicles from its territory to the territory of the other.
- Mutual unimpeded access to places of religious and historical significance will be provided on a non-discriminatory basis.
Cooperation for Development and Good Neighborly Relations
- The Parties recognize a mutuality of interest in good neighborly relations and agree to consider means to promote such relations.
- The Parties will cooperate in promoting peace, stability and development in their region. Each agrees to consider proposals the other may wish to make to this end.
- The Parties shall seek to foster mutual understanding and tolerance and will, accordingly, abstain from hostile propaganda against each other.
Transportation and Telecommunications
- The Parties recognize as applicable to each other the rights, privileges and obligations provided for by the aviation agreements to which they are both party, particularly by the Convention on International Civil Aviation, 1944 (“The Chicago Convention”), and the International Air Services Transit Agreement, 1944.
- Upon completion of the interim withdrawal any declaration of national emergency by a party under Article 89 of the Chicago Convention will not be applied to the other party on a discriminatory basis.
- Egypt agrees that the use of airfields left by Israel near El-Arish, Rafah, Ras El-Nagb, and Sharm El- Sheikh shall be for civilian purposes only, including possible commercial use by all nations.
- As soon as possible and not later than six months after the completion of the interim withdrawal, the Parties shall enter into negotiations for the purpose of concluding a civil aviation agreement.
- The Parties will reopen and maintain roads and railways between their countries and will consider further road and rail links. The Parties further agree that a highway will be constructed and maintained between Egypt, Israel and Jordan near Eilat with guaranteed free and peaceful passage of persons, vehicles, and goods between Egypt and Jordan, without prejudice to their sovereignty over that part of the highway which falls within their respective territory.
- Upon completion of the interim withdrawal, normal postal, telephone, telex, data facsimile, wireless and cable communications and television relay services by cable, radio and satellite shall be established between the two Parties in accordance with all relevant international conventions and regulations.
- Upon completion of the interim withdrawal, each Party shall grant normal access to its ports for vessels and cargoes of the other, as well as vessels and cargoes destined for or coming from the other. Such access will be granted on the same conditions generally applicable to vessels and cargoes of other nations. Article 5 of the Treaty of Peace will be implemented upon the exchange of instruments of ratification of the aforementioned treaty.
Enjoyment of Human Rights
The Parties affirm their commitment to respect and observe human rights and fundamental freedoms for all, and they will promote these rights and freedoms in accordance with the United Nations Charter.
Without prejudice to the provisions of Article 5 of the Treaty of Peace each Party recognizes the right of the vessels of the other Party to innocent passage through its territorial sea in accordance with the rules of international law.
Egypt’s resumption of the exercise of full sovereignty over the Sinai provided for in Paragraph 2 of Article I shall occur with regard to each area upon Israel’s withdrawal from the area.
It is agreed between the parties that the review provided for in Article IV (4) will be undertaken when requested by either party, commencing within three months of such a request, but that any amendment can be made only by mutual agreement of both parties.
The second sentence of Paragraph 2 of Article V shall not be construed as limiting the first sentence of that Paragraph. The foregoing is not to be construed as contravening the second sentence of Paragraph 2 of Article V, which reads as follows: “The Parties will respect each other’s right to navigation and overflight for access to either country through the Strait of Tiran and the Gulf of Aqaba.”
The provisions of Article VI shall not be construed in contradiction to the provisions of the framework for peace in the Middle East agreed at Camp David. The foregoing is not to be construed as contravening the provisions of Article VI (2) of the Treaty, which reads as follows: “The Parties undertake to fulfill in good faith their obligations under this Treaty, without regard to action of any other Party and independently of any instrument external to this Treaty.”
It is agreed by the Parties that there is no assertion that this Treaty prevails over other Treaties or agreements or that other Treaties or agreements prevail over this Treaty. The foregoing is not to be construed as contravening the provisions of Article VI (5) of the Treaty, which reads as follows: “Subject to Article 103 of the United Nations Charter, in the event of a conflict between the obligations of the Parties under the present Treaty and any of their other obligations, the obligation under this Treaty will be binding and implemented.”
Article VI, Paragraph 8, of Annex I provides as follows:
“The Parties shall agree on the nations from which the United Nations Forces and observers will be drawn. They will be drawn from nations other than those which are permanent members of the United Nations Security Council.”
The Parties have agreed as follows:
“With respect to the provisions of Paragraph 8, Article VI, of Annex 1, if no agreement is reached between the Parties, they will accept or support a U.S. proposal concerning the composition of the United Nations force and observers.”
The Treaty of Peace and Annex III thereto provide for establishing normal economic relations between the Parties. In accordance herewith, it is agreed that such relations will include normal commercial sales of oil by Egypt to Israel, and that Israel shall be fully entitled to make bids for Egyptian-origin oil not needed for Egyptian domestic oil consumption, and Egypt and its oil concessionaires will entertain bids made by Israel, on the same basis and terms as apply to other bidders for such oil.
For the Government of Israel
For the Government of the Arab Republic of Egypt
Jimmy Carter, President of the United States of America
Full text of the ‘Treaty of Peace’ signed by Israel and the United Arab Emirates
Israel on Tuesday signed separate bilateral normalization agreements with the United Arab Emirates and Bahrain. All three countries also signed a trilateral document, dubbed the “Abraham Accords” after the patriarch of the world’s three major monotheistic religions. US President Donald Trump signed as a witness.
This is the text of Israel’s agreement with the UAE:
Treaty of Peace, Diplomatic Relations and Full Normalization Between the United Arab Emirates and the State of Israel
The Government of the United Arab Emirates and the Government of the State of Israel (hereinafter, the “Parties”)
Aspiring to realize the vision of a Middle East region that is stable, peaceful and prosperous, for the benefit of all States and peoples in the region
Desiring to establish peace, diplomatic and friendly relations, co-operation and full normalization of ties between them and their peoples, in accordance with this Treaty, and to chart together a new path to unlock the vast potential of their countries and of the region
Reaffirming the “Joint Statement of the United States, the State of Israel and the United Arab Emirates,” (the Abraham Accords”), dated 13 August 2020
Believing that the further development of friendly relations meets the interests of lasting peace in the Middle East and that challenges can only be effectively addressed by cooperation and not by conflict
Determined to ensure lasting peace, stability, security and prosperity for both their States and to develop and enhance their dynamic and innovative economies
Reaffirming their shared commitment to normalize relations and promote stability through diplomatic engagement, increased economic cooperation and other close coordination
Reaffirming also their shared belief that the establishment of peace and full normalization between them can help transform the Middle East by spurring economic growth, enhancing technological innovation and forging closer people-to-people relations
Recognizing that the Arab and Jewish peoples are descendant of a common ancestor, Abraham, and inspired, in that spirit, to foster in the Middle East a reality in which Muslims, Jews, Christians and peoples of all faiths, denominations, beliefs and nationalities live in, and are committed to, a spirit of coexistence, mutual understanding and mutual respect
Recalling the reception held on January 28, 2020, at which President Trump presented his Vision for Peace, and committing to continuing their efforts to achieve a just, comprehensive, realistic and enduring solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict
Recalling the Treaties of Peace between the State of Israel and the Arab Republic of Egypt and between the State of Israel and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, and committed to working together to realize a negotiated solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict that meets the legitimate needs and aspirations of both people, and to advance comprehensive Middle East peace, stability and prosperity
Emphasizing the belief that the normalization of Israeli and Emirati relations is in the interest of both peoples and contributes to the cause of peace in the Middle East and the world
Expressing deep appreciation to the United States for its profound contribution to this historic achievement
1. Establishment of Peace, Diplomatic Relations and Normalization: Peace, diplomatic relations and full normalization of bilateral ties are hereby established between the United Arab Emirates and the State of Israel.
2. General Principles: The Parties shall be guided in their relations by the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations and the principle of international law governing relations among States. In particular, they shall recognize and respect each other’s sovereignty and right to live in peace and security, develop friendly relations of cooperation between them and their peoples, and settle all disputes between them by peaceful means.
3. Establishment of Embassies: The Parties shall exchange resident ambassadors as soon as practicable after the signing of this Treaty, and shall conduct diplomatic and consular relations in accordance with the applicable rules of international law.
4. Peace and Stability: The Parties shall attach profound importance to mutual understanding, cooperation and coordination between them in the spheres of peace and stability, as a fundamental pillar of their relations and as a means for enhancing those spheres in the Middle East as a whole. They undertake to take the necessary steps to prevent any terrorist or hostile activities against each other on or from their respective territories, as well as deny any support for such activities abroad or allowing such support on or from their respective territories.
Recognizing the new era of peace and friendly relations between them, as well as the centrality of stability to the well-being of their respective peoples and of the region, the Parties undertake to consider and discuss the matters regularly, and to conclude detailed agreements and arrangements on coordination and cooperation.
5. Cooperation and Agreements in Other Spheres: As an integral part of their commitment to peace, prosperity, diplomatic and friendly relations, cooperation and full normalization, the Parties shall work to advance the cause of peace, stability and prosperity throughout the Middle East, and to unlock the great potential of their countries and of the region. For such purposes, the Parties shall conclude bilateral agreements in the following spheres at the earliest practicable date, as well as in other spheres of mutual interest as may be agreed:
– Finance and Investment
– Civil Aviation
– Visas and Consular Services
– Innovation, Trade and Economic Relations
– Healthcare – Science, Technology and Peaceful Uses of Outer-Space
– Tourism, Culture and Sport
– Energy – Environment- Education
– Maritime Arrangements
– Telecommunications and Post
– Agriculture and Food Security
– Legal Cooperation
Any such agreements concluded before the entry into force of this Treaty shall enter into effect with the entry into force of this Treaty unless otherwise stipulated therein. Agreed principles for cooperation in specific spheres are annexed to this Treaty and form an integral part thereof.
6. Mutual Understanding and Co-existence: The Parties undertake to foster mutual understanding, respect, co-existence and a culture of peace between their societies in the spirit of their common ancestor, Abraham, and the new era of peace and friendly relations ushered in by this Treaty, including by cultivating people-to-people programs, interfaith dialogue and cultural, academic, youth, scientific, and other exchanges between their peoples. They shall conclude and implement the necessary visa and consular services agreements and arrangements so as to facilitate efficient and secure travel for their respective nationals to the territory of each other. The Parties shall work together to counter extremism, which promotes hatred and division, and terrorism and its justifications, including by preventing radicalization and recruitment and by combating incitement and discrimination.
They shall work towards establishing a High-Level Joint Forum for Peace and Co-Existence dedicated to advancing these goals.
7. Strategic Agenda for the Middle East: Further to the Abraham Accords: the Parties stand ready to join with the United States to develop and launch a “Strategic Agenda for the Middle East” in order to expand regional diplomatic, trade, stability and other cooperation. They are committed to work together, and with the United States and others, appropriate, in order to advance the cause of peace, stability and prosperity in the relations between them and for the Middle East as a whole, including by seeking to advance regional security and stability pursue regional economic opportunities promote a culture of peace across the region and consider joint aid and development programs.
8. Other Rights and Obligations: This Treaty does not affect and shall not be interpreted as affecting, in any way, the rights and obligations of the Parties under the Charter of the United Nations. The Parties shall take all necessary measures for the application in their bilateral relations of the provisions of the multilateral conventions of which they are both Parties including the submission of appropriate notification to the depositories of such conventions.
9. Respect for Obligations: The Parties undertake to fulfill in good faith their obligations under this Treaty, without regard to action or inaction of any other party and independently of any instrument inconsistent with this Treaty. For the purposes of this paragraph each Party represents to the other that in its opinion and interpretation there is no inconsistency between their existing treaty obligations and this Treaty. The Parties undertake not to enter into any obligation in conflict with this Treaty. Subject to Article 103 of the Charter of the United Nations, in the event of a conflict between the obligations of the Parties under the present Treaty and any of their other obligations, the obligations under this Treaty shall be binding and implemented. The Parties further undertake to adopt any legislation or other internal legal procedure necessary in order to implement this Treaty, and to repeal any national legislation or official publications inconsistent with this Treaty.
10. Ratification and Entry into Force: This Treaty shall be ratified by both Parties as soon as practicable in conformity with their respective national procedures and will enter into force following the exchange of instruments of ratification.
11. Settlement of Disputes: Disputes arising out of the application or interpretation of this Treaty shall be resolved by negotiation. Any such dispute which cannot be settled by negotiation may be referred to conciliation or arbitration subject to the agreement of the Parties.
12. Registration: This Treaty shall be transmitted to the Secretary-General of the United Nations for registration in accordance with the provisions of Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations.
Done at Washington, DC, this day Elul 26th, 5780, Muharram 27th, 1442, which corresponds to 15 September 2020, in the Hebrew, Arabic and English languages, all texts being equally authentic. In case of divergence of interpretation, the English text shall prevail.
Pursuant to Article 5 of the Treaty of Peace, Diplomatic Relations and Full Normalization between the United Arab Emirates and the State of Israel, the Parties shall conclude bilateral agreements in spheres of mutual interest, in furtherance of which they have agreed to the following provisions. Such provisions are annexed to the Treaty and form an integral part thereof.
Finance and Investment
Further to the Agreed Protocol signed between the Parties on September 1, 2020, in Abu Dhabi, the Parties shall cooperate to expeditiously deepen and broaden bilateral investment relations, and give high priority to concluding agreements in the sphere of finance and investment, recognizing the key role of these agreements in the economic development of the Parties and the Middle East as a whole. The Parties reaffirm their commitment to protecting investors, consumers, market integrity and financial stability, as well as maintaining all applicable regulatory standards. Recognizing also their shared goal to advance regional economic development and the flow of goods and services, the Parties shall endeavor to promote collaborations on strategic regional infrastructure projects and shall explore the establishment of a multilateral working group for the “Tracks for Regional Peace” project.
The Parties acknowledge the importance of ensuring regular direct flights between Israel and the United Arab Emirates, for passengers and cargo, as an essential means for developing and promoting their relations. They recognize as applicable to each other the rights, privileges and obligations provided for by the multilateral aviation agreements to which they are both a party, their annexes and any amendments thereof applicable to both Parties, particularly the 1944 Convention on International Civil Aviation, opened for signature at Chicago on the seventh day of December 1944, and the 1944 International Air Services Transit Agreement. Accordingly, the Parties shall as soon as practicable conclude all the necessary agreements and arrangements governing civil aviation, and consequently work towards establishing an international air corridor between their two States in accordance with international law. They shall also reach and implement the necessary agreements and arrangements with respect to visas and consular services to facilitate travel for the citizens of both States.
The Parties affirm their mutual desire to promote tourism cooperation between them as a key component of economic development and of developing closer people-to-people and cultural ties. To this end, the Parties shall facilitate the exchange of information through advertisement spots, published and audiovisual promotional materials, and participation in tourist fairs. They shall also work together to promote joint tourism projects and packages between tourist operators so as to enhance tourism from third States. They shall work towards carrying out reciprocal study tours in order to increase knowledge in the development, management and marketing of heritage, cultural and rural tourism with a view to diversifying and deepening touristic links between them and endeavor to utilize national marketing budgets to promote mutual tourism between the States.
Innovation, Trade and Economic Relations.
The Parties shall enhance and expand their cooperation in innovation, trade and economic relations, so that the dividends of peace are felt across their societies. Recognizing that the principle of the free and unimpeded flow of goods and services should guide their relations, as well as the potential for diversification of bilateral trade opportunities, the Parties shall cooperate in order to enable favorable conditions for trade, and the reduction of trade barriers.
Science, Technology and Peaceful Uses of Outer-Space
The Parties acknowledge the important role of science, technology and innovation in the growth of multiple key sectors and shall strengthen joint action and mutual cooperation in scientific and technological advancement. This shall include furthering scientific cooperation and exchange, including between scientists, research and academic institutions, pursuing the establishment of joint research and development centers, and exploring the possibility of joint funding of research and scientific projects in select fields of mutual interest. The Parties further express their common interest in establishing and developing mutually beneficial cooperation in the field of exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes, in a manner consistent with each Party’s respective applicable national laws and international obligations. Such cooperation may include implementation of joint programs, projects and activities in the fields of science, space exploration, space related technologies and education, exchange of experts, information and best practices, and the promotion of cooperation between their respective space industries.
The Parties acknowledge the importance of protecting, preserving and improving the environment, and shall promote environmental innovation for the sustainable development of the region and beyond. The Parties shall endeavor to cooperate to develop environmental protection strategies on priority issues, including on biodiversity conservation, marine environment protection and climate change mitigation and adaptation, and on the possible establishment of a center for developing pioneering solutions to climate challenges in arid and semi-arid environments.
Telecommunications and Post
The Parties recognize the necessity of mutually beneficial cooperation for the continued development of telecommunications, information technologies and postal services. They take note of the establishment between them of direct communications services, including telephone lines, and agree to promote, in accordance with relevant international conventions and regulations, direct postal exchange, submarine cables and e-commerce solutions, as well as utilize available satellite systems, fiber optical communication, and broadcasting services. The Parties will strive to develop frameworks for innovation in ICT, including advanced fixed and wireless communications, collaboration on 5G networks, smart cities, and use of ICT solutions to foster innovation and the creation of best services.
The Parties welcome progress made in cooperation between them regarding the treatment of, and the development of a vaccine for the Covid-19 virus, as a sign of the tremendous potential for cooperation between them in the healthcare sphere. Recognizing the importance of building ties in the fields of health and medicine, the Parties shall cooperate, inter alia, on: medical education, training and simulations, digital health and artificial intelligence innovation in the health sector, and emergency management and preparedness.
Agriculture and Food Security
The Parties recognize the great importance of sustainable agricultural development, recognizing its vital role in addressing food security concerns, as well as in the preservation of the environment. They shall cooperate to harness and maximize existing technologies, actively facilitate new collaborations, and share and develop knowledge, technologies and innovative approaches in the field of arid agriculture, irrigation technologies, mariculture techniques in shallow sea water, sustainable nutritious fish feed production, and seed enhancement in hot and humid climates.
The Parties recognize the critical importance of sustainable water use and shall cooperate for their mutual benefit to address issues of water supply, water treatment and management, water security, efficiency, wastewater management and re-use, as well as water conservation and desalination.
The Parties take note of the strategic importance of the energy sector and in particular of their need to promote renewable energy, cooperation in the natural gas field, regional grids, alternative energy and energy security. They shall advance and develop mutual cooperation in energy projects, share best practices and discuss policies in energy forums that will help to promote and unlock the
energy potential of the region, coordinating where appropriate with the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), headquartered in Abu Dhabi.
Each Party shall recognize the right of vessels of the other Party to innocent passage through its territorial waters in accordance with international law. Each Party will grant normal access to its ports for vessels and cargoes of the other Party, as well as vessels and cargoes destined for or coming from the other Party. Such access shall be granted on the same terms as generally applicable to vessels and cargoes of other nations. The Parties shall conclude agreements and arrangements in maritime affairs, as may be required.
Recognizing the importance of a supporting legal framework for the movement of people and goods and for fostering a continuous business friendly environment between them, the Parties shall make best efforts to grant each other the widest measure of legal cooperation, including, inter alia, in respect of mutual legal assistance in civil and commercial matters, in accordance with their national laws and shall endeavor to conclude specific agreements and arrangements in this sphere.
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Camp David Accords/Israel-Egypt Peace Agreement 1978-1979
The Israel-Egypt peace agreement was a watershed event, marking the first such agreement between the Jewish state and an Arab state. The breakthrough came in November 1977 when Egyptian President Anwar Sadat made a bold and unprecedented visit to Israel, and in a speech at the Israeli Knesset (parliament), addressed the Israeli people with a call for reconciliation and peace.
Formal negotiations ensued the following September when Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin joined U.S. President Jimmy Carter at the Camp David presidential retreat in Maryland. The so-called “Camp David Accords” of September 17, 1978 were based on U.N. resolutions 242 and 338, and were meant to constitute a basis for peace not only between Egypt and Israel, but also to reach “a just, comprehensive, and durable settlement of the Middle East conflict” for all neighbors willing to negotiate with Israel. Israel agreed to withdraw from all of the Sinai Peninsula (which it had captured in the 1967 Six Day War) within three years, and to dismantle its air bases near the Gulf of Aqaba and the town of Yamit. Egypt promised full diplomatic relations with Israel, and to allow Israel passage through the Suez Canal, the Straits of Tiran, and the Gulf of Aqaba. The accords also established a framework for territorial issues related to the West Bank and Gaza Strip.
On March 26, 1979, the two countries signed a peace treaty on the White House lawn. Sadat, having gone out on a limb for the peace treaty, was vilified in the Arab world, and was assassinated in 1981.
The groundbreaking Israel-Egypt peace paved the way for subsequent Israeli negotiations and treaties with Jordan and the Palestinians. Relations between Cairo and Jerusalem have not been warm, and the two nations share what is commonly referred to as a “cold peace.” However, in recent years, Egypt has played a key behind-the-scenes role in facilitating Israeli-Palestinian negotiations, including ceasefires between Israel and Hamas.
March 26 1979 – The Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty is Signed in Washington, DC
Five-and-half years after the Yom Kippur War, Egypt and Israel agreed to an historic peace treaty in Washington, DC on March 26, 1979. After more than three decades of combat, leaders from the two nations were finally able to bring hostilities to an official end following sixteen months of intense negotiations.
The day after the creation of Israel on May 14, 1948 via a United Nations partition plan, Arab armies invaded the narrow strip of land on the eastern shores of the Mediterranean Sea. Called a “War of Independence” by the Israelis, the nine-month conflict would be the first in a succession of vicious engagements between the two sides. At the bargaining table the following March, Arabic representatives were forced to acknowledge the expansion of the Jewish State — some 50 percent larger than when combat started.
Over the next quarter-century, a variety of military actions occurred — battles over the Sinai Peninsula in 1956 and 1967, with the latter resulting in a comprehensive Israeli victory in the Six-Day War. Infuriated by further loss of territory to their sworn enemy, Arab leadership agreed to avoid any appearances of settling for the situation as presented. Israel was to be destroyed without a second thought, giving voice to an already-constant state of war between the parties.
In 1973, the animosity came to a head. On October 6th, Syria and Egypt launched an assault on Israel during Yom Kippur, the holiest day in Judaism. Attacking the Israelis from both sides, the Arab militaries rocked their opposition onto its heels — it would be three full days before a counteroffensive could be mounted. When Israel’s defense forces did push back, the Egyptians and Syrians were routed, giving the Israelis control of Sinai and areas familiar to news broadcasts today: the Gaza Strip, West Bank and Golan Heights.
When the Yom Kippur War ended on October 25, 1973, the combatants were pressed to look at the situation from another angle. Diplomats from Israel and Egypt quietly passed messages through intermediaries, opening the possibility for constructive talks in the future. Anwar El Sadat, the President of Egypt, finally grew tired of working through back channels and scheduled meetings for his administration with the Israelis in December 1977.
Nine months later, President of the United States Jimmy Carter offered the two sides isolation from competing interests in the Middle East by opening up Camp David in Maryland for the discussions. During a marathon two-week negotiating session, Sadat and Prime Minister of Israel Menachem Begin hammered out the basics for a treaty. The Camp David Accords, though particularly controversial in the Arab world, provided a solid framework for lasting peace. All that was left to do was finalize details and sign the agreement.
On March 26, 1979, the deal was closed. Sadat, Carter and Begin gathered in the Rose Garden of the White House to announce the Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty. Three copies of the official document were made, one in Arabic, a second in Hebrew and the third in English. As Sadat affixed his signature, he cemented his place in history as the first Arab leader to form a peace pact with Israel.
In contrast to other members of the Arab League, Egypt would now recognize Israeli sovereignty in exchange for the return of the Sinai Peninsula. Israel pulled its soldiers and civilians back with the assurance shipping through the Suez Canal would remain open and newly-minted international waters would not be blocked by the Egyptian Navy. Both nations would, in turn, send ambassadors to the other’s capital as part of the process to normalize relations between them. Further, in a concession to Arab concerns, Begin agreed to grant self-rule to Palestinians living in Israeli-controlled areas in the West Bank and Gaza Strip
During the commemorative ceremony, each of the three men spoke about the monumental treaty. Carter called it “the first step on a long and difficult road” to a lasting peace. As the men rose for a unique three-person handshake, hope sprung eternal despite the significant differences that led to drawn-out, contentious negotiations.
Western nations largely applauded the development, with Sadat and Begin receiving the Nobel Peace Prize for 1978, despite the obvious obstacles to a complete end to tensions. Within the region, Arab leaders decried the treaty as a travesty. Yasser Arafat, leader of the Palestinian Liberation Organization, reacted bitterly: “False peace will not last.” Egypt’s membership in the Arab League was immediately suspended for Sadat’s perceived insult. (Extremists eventually assassinated the Egyptian President in October 1981.)
Despite Arafat’s response, the treaty has remained in effect for more than 30 years — Israeli Minister of Defense Binyamin Ben-Eliezer claimed in a January 2011 interview that “Egypt is not only our closest friend in the region, the co-operation between us goes beyond the strategic.” As Egyptians gathered to oust President Hosni Mubarak around the same time, Israeli officials were quick to agree to the movement of two Egyptian battalions into the Sinai Peninsula to protect the troops from attack. Only the Revolution that followed has threatened the fragile peace announced on that chilly Monday in 1979.
1552 – Guru Amar Das is elevated as the Third Sikh Guru
1812 – A magnitude 7.7 earthquake levels Caracas, Venezuela
1830 – The Book of Mormon is first published in Palmyra, New York
1905 – Austrian neurologist and psychologist Viktor Frankl is born in Vienna
1997 – The bodies of 39 Heaven’s Gate cult members are found in a home outside San Diego, California
Historic Peace Treaty or Preparation for the Antichrist?White House
For Evangelical Christians, it’s difficult to look at major developments in the Middle East without wondering about biblical prophecy. Should we rejoice over the historic peace treaty between Israel and the UAE and Bahrain? Or is this leading to a dangerous, false peace that will only hasten the reign of the antichrist?
Let’s first recognize just how historic this peace treaty actually is.
A Unique Development in the Modern History of Israel
For 30 years, from 1948 until 1978, not a single Middle Eastern nation made peace with Israel. It was not until 1979 that Egypt made that historic move. It ultimately factored into the assassination of the courageous Egyptian leader Anwar Sadat.
The next Middle Eastern (and Muslim) nation to make peace with Israel was Jordan in 1995, 16 years later. Since then, not a single Islamic, Middle Eastern nation has made peace with Israel. That is, until now, 25 years later.
This is completely beyond anything we have seen in the modern history of Israel.
Not only so, but this is the first time ever that two nations signed peace treaties on the same day. So, what previously took 47 years (from 1948 to 1995) took place in a matter of hours. This is completely beyond anything we have seen in the modern history of Israel.
After Doing Things People Thought Would Cause War, Trump Helps Make Peace
Not only so, but this happened after President Trump moved our embassy to Jerusalem and after he officially recognized Israel’s possession of the Golan Heights. This makes the peace treaty all the more remarkable.
Let’s not forget that, for years we were told that for America to make such moves would be disastrous, leading to an all-out war with the Muslim world. Instead, the aftermath has been a path of peace.
That’s why Boaz Bismuth’s article on Times of Israel was titled, “The Event That Will Change the History of the Middle East.” He wrote, “Even in a pandemic, we can allow ourselves to rejoice at the first open, warm peace between Israel and Arab countries, and ignore the cynics who are seeking to downplay the importance of today’s events.”
Obviously, the Palestinians are anything but happy with the treaty. And the details of the agreement must be carefully analyzed.
But what cannot be denied is the magnitude of this treaty, which is being hailed as the Abraham Accords. As one of the official documents states, “this development will help lead to a future in which all peoples and all faiths can live together in the spirit of cooperation and enjoy peace and prosperity where states focus on shared interests and building a better future.”
“People of All Faith Can Live Together” Versus the Peace the Bible Prophesies
Yet it is words like this that cause some prophecy-minded Evangelicals to say, “Not so fast! After all, there will be no true peace in the Middle East until Jesus returns. Plus, there are prophetic scriptures that speak of a false peace orchestrated by the antichrist that will lull the world to sleep, leading to the slaughter of millions. Beware!”
Scriptures that would come to mind include 1 Thessalonians 5:3, where Paul wrote, “While people are saying, ‘Peace and safety,’ destruction will come on them suddenly, as labor pains on a pregnant woman, and they will not escape.”
Also relevant is Ezekiel 38:11-12, where the hostile nations will say about Israel, “I will invade a land of unwalled villages I will attack a peaceful and unsuspecting people — all of them living without walls and without gates and bars. I will plunder and loot and turn my hand against the resettled ruins and the people gathered from the nations, rich in livestock and goods, living at the center of the land.”
Who could imagine the nation of Israel described as “a peaceful and unsuspecting people — all of them living without walls and without gates and bars”? Who could imagine Israel putting its guard down?
Yet, according to some prophecy teachers, this passage will be fulfilled at the end of this age. In that light, shouldn’t the Abraham Accords, which Trump described as “the dawn of a new Middle East,” be viewed with great suspicion? Especially if 5 or 6 other nations follow suit and join the peace process?
Should We View This Peace Deal With Suspicion?
As someone who has been studying the Bible intensively for the better part of the last 50 years, I can say with absolute confidence that I do not know.
I do not know if this will prepare the way for the antichrist.
I do not know if this will ultimately hurt Israel more than it helps Israel.
But what I do know is that Jesus said, “Blessed are the peacemakers, for they will be called children of God” (Matthew 5:9).
What I do know is that Paul wrote, “If it is possible, as far as it depends on you, live at peace with everyone” (Hebrews 12:18).
What I do know that it is better for Israel to have more friends than more enemies.
That being said, if sudden and dramatic peace came to the Middle East, I would be both hopeful and cautious.
Would this be the result of decades (if not centuries) of prayer and years of diplomacy? Or would it be the first step towards a dangerous one-world government that will ultimately oppose God Himself?
Pragmatism and a Reminder of Biblical Prophecy
Obviously, only God knows. But when it comes to making national decisions, they must be based on pragmatism more than prophecy. That’s because religious believers from all backgrounds have often misinterpreted prophecy before it unfolds, often wrongly predicting the end of the world or the return (or coming) of the Messiah.
But speaking of prophecy, this same Bible I have been quoting speaks of the day when nations like Egypt and Assyria (today, Iraq) will join together and worship the God of Israel after a time of great upheaval and judgment. As stated by the prophet Isaiah, “In that day Israel will be the third, along with Egypt and Assyria, a blessing on the earth. The LORD Almighty will bless them, saying, ‘Blessed be Egypt my people, Assyria my handiwork, and Israel my inheritance.’” (Isaiah 19:24-25)
In fact, Isaiah prophesied about other Arabian nations turning to the God of Israel through the Messiah (see Isaiah 42:11 60:7).
Only the Lord Himself knows the implications of this important peace treaty. But at the least, let’s be glad that leaders are meeting together rather than killing each other. And let us see the Abraham Accords as a reminder of the day when all the nations of the earth will come to Jerusalem to worship the Lord (Isaiah 2:1-4).
Dr. Michael Brown (www.askdrbrown.org) is the host of the nationally syndicated Line of Fire radio program. Connect with him on Facebook, Twitter or YouTube.
Tracking The 7 Year Israel Peace Agreement
This Revelation Timeline Decoded Bible study page will track the narrative of an Israel peace agreement, as the enemy has caused it to become a marker, for the supposed 7-year tribulation, featuring the supposed one-man antichrist and the supposed pre-trib rapture.
That’s a lot of “supposeds” but the whole narrative is a deception from the enemy, to deceive the end times saints.
The concept of a future 7-year tribulation period is based on a futuristic 70th week of Daniel.
The 70th week of Daniel is not about the end times, and it is not about the modern state of Israel or a one-man antichrist.
The 70th week of Daniel was fulfilled on time, after the 69th week, from 27-34 A.D.: when Messiah and His disciples confirmed with the Jews that He is the promised Messiah who ratified the everlasting covenant with His blood as the Passover Lamb. Here is a study series that prove this out. The 70th Week Of Daniel Deception
The Revelation 13 – Roman Sea Beast study proves that the antichrist beast of Scripture has been fulfilled by the office of the papacy, the Popes of Rome. There will be a final one to be sure, but all of them fulfill prophecy.
Even though there is no Scriptural justification for a future 7- year tribulation period, the enemy has convinced the majority of Christians of these things, and they will play them out.
No doubt there will be an Israel peace agreement, maybe for seven years.
And no doubt the person who makes it, maybe President Donald Trump’s son-in-law Jared Kushner will be labelled as the one-man antichrist. Read Is Jared Kushner Being Positioned As The Antichrist?
Keeping in mind that the enemy has caused Christians to believe that an Israel peace agreement marks the beginning of a supposed future 70th week of Daniel, the 7-year tribulation period this would be a significant event, if it happened.
So if a peace agreement is reached this year, Christians would be awaiting their supposed pre-trib rapture. But since the 70th week of Daniel was already fulfilled, there is no pre-trib timeframe. Messiah will return at the end like He said.
Read this Revelation Fulfillment Summary to see where we are in the fulfillment of Revelation. The short answer is that most of Revelation has already been fulfilled during the last 1,900 years, and we are in the 6th bowl waiting on WW III and the One World Government of the 7th bowl.
I’ve listed the latest events first, so they you can see what is going on right now:
On 05/03/17 President Trump met with the Palestinian leader, Mahmoud Abbas, in the Oval Office on Wednesday.
Mr. Trump proclaimed that he would be the president who finally makes peace in the Middle East. “We will get this done”.
People on Facebook made the following comments, showing that they know the (false) narrative, and are looking for their pre-trib rapture.
Gosh – If this is True, my spirit is LEAPING.
Wow, gets more exciting as each day passes!
05/03/17 False prophecy teacher Anita Fuentes hosted the video of Trumps speech, with the headline “BREAKING! Trump says Abbas WILL sign FINAL PEACE DEAL cites Peace & Safety in the first 75 seconds”
She then commented with the follow false narrative of a future one-man antichrist:
“Trump vows to work as “mediator, an arbitrator or a facilitator” to broker final peace between Israelis and Palestinians. For the record a Mediator is also known as a “Peacemaker” and “final peace” will be ONLY done by the Anti-Christ. With all the Christian evangelicals working for and with Trump no one has stopped to tell him he is unconsciously (or consciously) trying to fill the role of the man of sin the son of perdition? – Evangelist Anita Fuentes”
Note: Anita Fuentes is a Catholic, who gives false prophecy fulfillment explanations, in order to deflect blame away from the antichrist beast Pope and false prophet Jesuit General.
01/20/17 On the eve of his inauguration, President Trump proclaimed that his son-in-law Jared Kushner, who is Jewish, would be the perfect person to get a peace deal done, so it’s something to watch.
During his speech, Trump thanked members of his family who were in the crowd, including his son-in-law and senior adviser, Jared Kushner. “Ivanka married well,” Trump declared, referring to his daughter who is married to Kushner. During the weekend, Trump confirmed in an interview with the Times of London that Kushner, an Orthodox Jew, will be used by his administration to try and broker a peace agreement between Israel and the Palestinians. “If you can’t produce peace in the Middle East, nobody can,” he told Kushner at the Union Station event.
Watch the video: Heres How the Camp David Accords Impacted the Middle East. History
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