The Ancient Civilizations that Came Before: Building on the Ruins of the Ancestors – Part 2

The Ancient Civilizations that Came Before: Building on the Ruins of the Ancestors – Part 2

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Read: Self-Eradication, Or Natural Cataclysm? – Part I

The literature of Egyptology is extensive. It is, however, drowned in the – isms: skepticism, relativism, materialism, presentism, obscuritarianism, and scientism. Nevertheless, some theories in outer circles do make sense or actually make more sense than the conventional ones.

We have the Orion Correlation Theory (1993) advanced by Robert Bauval that suggests the three pyramids at Giza plateau were built mirroring the three stars in the Orion constellation, also known as Orion’s belt. Not only that, but Bauval goes further to observe that a shaft within the Great Pyramid was, at some point in the past, oriented towards the middle star of Orion’s belt, which is the star representing the same pyramid.

Khufu's pyramid at Giza shown with inner shafts illustrated. ( CC BY-SA 3.0 )

These observations have huge implications when we relate them to an astronomical phenomenon called precession of the equinoxes. The phenomenon is a cycle the earth undergoes which lasts, according to NASA, 25,800 years. This cycle is manifested in the observable fact that the background stars and Zodiac constellations in the morning of the vernal equinoxes change across the millennia, making each Zodiac constellation last 2,125 years in those mornings when the day and night are of equal length. This cycle is either caused by the slow wobbling of the earth due to the moon’s gravitational pull, or by the whole solar system moving in a helical orbit.

The first scientific recognition of the precession cycle took place in ancient Greece (129 B.C.) by the astronomer Hipparchus. However, long before that, ancient Mesopotamia, Mesoamerica and Egypt somehow knew about the cycle and we do not know whether this knowledge was handed down from earlier times, or whether they scientifically discovered it themselves. This cycle tracks time across a large span and is, according to writer and journalist Graham Hancock, “extremely difficult to observe, and even harder to measure accurately, without sophisticated instrumentation.”

  • The Riddle of the Sphinx
  • The Star-Shaft Theory of the Great Pyramid - Busted
  • The Great Pyramid of Giza as a monument of creation - Part 1: Earth

The Great Sphinx: Marking Time and Space

According to Bauval, the way the Giza plateau is related to the astronomical cycle is that the whole Giza site tracks time. In the immediate vicinity of the pyramids we have the Sphinx which faces east. The Sphinx shape resembles a lion, and thus Bauval claims it symbolizes the Zodiac constellation of Leo. In the morning of the equinoxes, the Sphinx, in the present era, faces the constellation of Pisces and is slightly shifting towards the constellation of Aquarius. However, if we run a computer simulation of earth’s precession backwards, we find that the Sphinx at some point in the remote past used to face the constellation of Leo from 10,970 to 8,810 BC. This is where the great pyramid becomes handy in specifying an exact date. When its shaft is aligned with the middle star of the Orion Belt we get the exact year of 10,450 B.C. Question: what is this date about?

The Sphinx of Giza, Egypt. Source: BigStockPhoto

The Orion Theory seems to give a better answer to the question ‘ why’ but what about the ‘how ’? No two blocks in the 2.3 million stone blocks have been found to be of equal size or weight in the great pyramid. How do they fit beautifully into a homogenous whole with an intended great precision? You would need a microprocessor to determine where each unique block, of an average of 2.5 to 15 tons, goes. It is now known in engineering and architecture that a structure that is built with unequal blocks is more likely to resist earthquakes and to last longer.

At this point it is even doubtful to think that ancient Egyptians designed and built the Giza Necropolis. We know many aspects of ancient Egyptian daily life with the minutest details. However, there is no single mention of: “ Oh, by the way, we also built the pyramids! ” in their hieroglyphs records and no hieroglyph inscription inside the three main pyramids.

The Grand Gallery of the Great Pyramid of Giza. ( CC BY-SA 3.0 )

Some evidence even suggests that the site predates the legendary flood. Encrustations of natural salt were found inside the great pyramid when it was opened for the first time. Also, in his Histories, Herodotus also reported that he observed in the surrounding area of the pyramids seashells and signs of salt water calcification. All this makes one doubt the conventional knowledge of the pyramid builders, the time they were built, and why and how they were built.

Were Humans Recovering from Cataclysm?

One thing for certain is that the 10 th millennium BC is a significant date to the pyramid builders and to our conventional wisdom as well. It is when the late ice age ended, when wooden buildings and human settlements in the Americas appeared, along the domestication of animals. The remains of humans in caves, and a remarkable transformation marked with the introduction of farming, date back to the same era. All these sudden developments could signify two possible scenarios. The first is that humans were witnessing the most significant step in their long chain of evolution. The second suggests that humans were actually recovering from a worldwide cataclysm. The evidence does not matter, it is how we look at it that gives it meaning.

The ruins of Göbeklitepe in Turkey, the oldest temple in the world. What do these mysterious stones communicate to us about the very ancient past? Wikimedia Commons

One of course would not expect survivors of a cataclysm to build cities right from the start. They would have to spread out over the earth. Thus, keeping track of one another would not be possible due to the absence of a means of communication. This would eventually result in linguistic deviation, and distortion of historical accounts. Instead of progressing forward, man would have had to go through a phase of silence, struggling with nature, and using archaic tools. The knowledge we have about early archaic human cultures of the Lower Paleolithic period (Oldowan, Acheulean and Mousterian tool cultures) provides a fine description of post-cataclysm man trying to survive upon the ruins of their ancestors.

All cultures seem to have started emerging simultaneously with no substantial signs of preliminary phases in the era that followed the great decline. They went from being hunter-gatherers to becoming citizens with rights and responsibilities.

Upon the Ruins of the Ancestors

“How does a complex civilization spring full-blown into being? Look at a 1905 automobile and compare it to a modern one. There is no mistaking the process of ‘development’. But in Egypt there are no parallels. Everything is right there at the start. The answer to the mystery is of course obvious but, because it is repellent to the prevailing cast of modern thinking, it is seldom considered. Egyptian civilization was not a ‘development’, it was a legacy.” – John Anthony West, 1979

This emergence of civilization was undoubtedly supported by ancient wisdom and this wisdom still lingers even up to present day. The heliocentric picture of the world has its earliest traces in the ancient Sanskrit texts (e.g. Yajnavalkya, ca. 900 BC, Aryabhata ca. 476 AD) and later Aristarchus of Samos (circa 230 BC). This makes the Copernican revolution rather a revival of lost knowledge. Add to that, the 12 Zodiac constellation artificial division with a precision of 30 degree in each constellation is untraceable to any culture.

“Contrary to history as we know it, in that remote period we call ‘prehistory’, there subsisted an embarrassing wealth of astronomical knowledge. And may I suggest that the more one looks into it, the more one feels that a race of scientific giants has preceded us.” – Johnathan Gray, 2004

Electricity was not actually discovered but rediscovered. There are many items made of aluminum that have been found in archaeological sites, e.g. in the burial site of General Zhou Chu (265-420 AD) while aluminum is believed to have not been created until 1854 because the process of making it strictly requires electricity.

Ancient Hindu texts describe great battles taking place and an unknown weapon that causes great destruction. A manuscript illustration of the battle of Kurukshetra, recorded in the Mahabharata. Image source: Wikipedia

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Besides physics, ancient maps gave a push to maritime exploration. The Piri Reis map perplexes modern man for its accuracy and its depiction of Antarctica long before the continent’s discovery in 1819. The map shows with fine exactitude the continent without the ice cap, detailing mountains and rivers that correspond to the Swedish-British-Norwegian seismic-echo-sounding profile in the Antarctic Expedition of 1949 (Ohlmeyer, the USAF Commander, in a letter to Charles Hapgood, 1960).

In the meantime, academia preaches that the Antarctica landmass has been under the ice cap long before mankind even ‘evolved’.

“The difference between fiction and reality? Fiction has to make sense.” — Tom Clancy

Any ‘anomaly’ in science could be a twinkle of a new discovery or paradigm shift that may be left unnoticed or even denied for fear of misoneism—the hatred of change. A true scientific and intellectual honesty will never be achieved unless we take into consideration the anomalous by trying to adjust or even reconstruct our theoretical assumptions accordingly— until the anomalous, as Kuhn puts it, becomes expected. We are in a desperate need not only for a paradigm shift but, most importantly, for a scientific renaissance.

Knowing our past is of great value and has huge implications on the present and future. The past, the present and the future are all one chain of events. The more we know about the past, the more we know ourselves and where we are headed. The question that remains is: do the pyramids point to the date of the cataclysm?

Featured image: Painting of the many skeletons found at Mohenjo Daro (Pakistan), an exceptional ancient metropolis reduced to ruins for reasons unknown. Image source: Wikimedia

By: Zakaria Bziker


Bauval, R., & Gilbert, A. (1994). The Orion mystery: Unlocking the secrets of the Pyramids . New York: Crown.

Dinwiddie, J. (2001). Revelations: The Golden Elixir . Lincoln: iUniverse.

Gray, J. (2004). Dead men's secrets: Tantalising hints of a lost super race . Bloomington, Ind.: AuthorHouse.

Kuhn, T. (1970). The structure of scientific revolutions (2nd ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

West, J. (1979). Serpent in the sky: The high wisdom of Ancient Egypt . New York: Harper & Row.

Are There Ancient Civilizations Simply Unknown To Us?

Perhaps the best way to begin to propose an answer to that question would be to ask ourselves what would happen if a cataclysmic event happened today? Whether it was from a huge meteor strike, or nuclear war, or even a disease that swept through the human population sparing not one person, if humans were to simply die or disappear our place we might think is assured in history. After all, our infrastructure and the remains of our modern world (that which wasn’t reduced to ruins in such an event) would be our signature on the planet of our once thriving civilization, right?

Well, perhaps not. It might surprise many to learn that there is a very real chance that should such a tragic end befall the human population, the “next” civilization, in however many millions of years, would very likely have no knowledge that we once existed. Even should life begin again in “only” several thousand years, there is every chance that what little would still remain of our civilization would not be understood. And by the time new civilizations had developed, our existence may be viewed as many of us view the “myths” of Atlantis or a global flood at some point in the (not too) distant past. Remember, the age we put on civilizations and even the Earth itself, for all the academic trimmings, is basically guess-work. And they are not forced to be one-hundred percent correct all the time.

Before we look at some of the finds, claims, and theories about the real possibility of a civilization, perhaps even several, existing on Earth before ours, let’s have a look at just how quickly things would change on Earth, and how and why there would be very little left of our world.

Evidence of Pre-flood civilizations? The underwater complex of Yonaguni

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Is it possible that the underwater complex of Yonaguni is one of the many ‘ancient sites’ on our planet that was left behind by Pre-flood civilizations? Many people around the world believe these incredible underwater ruins are work of ancient mankind.

Like many other ancient sites around the globe that have been omitted by mainstream researchers, the incredible underwater ruins of Yonaguni, located off the coast of Yonaguni, the southernmost of the Ryukyu Islands, in Japan, are considered by many as proof that I the distant past, before history as we know it, incredible civilizations inhabited our planet. (Check out our 10 facts about the Yonaguni Monument)

These incredible underwater ruins have been a subject of debate between archaeologists and researchers ever since its discovery in 1985 by Dive Tour operator Kihachiro Aratake.

Ever since the mysterious structures were found, people have discussed whether they are manmade or natural formations. Some researchers and historians believe that the structures at Yonaguni could be the ancient remains of Mu, a fabled Pacific civilization rumored to have vanished beneath the Ocean.

While mainstream researchers believe these structures are not the work of ancient mankind, research on the underwater complex tells a different story. The main “monument” at the underwater complex of Yonaguni consists of medium to very fine sandstone and mudstone blocks that belong to the Lower Miocene Yaeyama Group which researchers believe were deposited about 20 million years ago.

This means that if the Yonaguni monument was, in fact, a man-made structure as many suggest, it was constructed/carved during the last ice age (about 10,000 years ago) when Yonaguni was part of a land bridge that connected the site to Taiwan.

The mains reason why archaeologists and geologists remain skeptical about the underwater complex is due to the fact that most of the underwater formations at Yonaguni are connected to the underlying mass, opposing the possibility that the Yonaguni monument was assembled out of freestanding rocks and firmly deny that these structures were in fact carved by ancient mankind in the distant past.

However, videos and images of the underwater complex tell a different story.

The main feature discovered at the Yonaguni complex is the “Monument” is a rectangular formation that approx. measures 150 by 40 m and is about 27 m tall.

But what makes the underwater ruins of Yonaguni stand out?

Well, according to many people, one of the best examples found at the underwater complex are the staircase-like terraces and the amazing flat sides with extremely sharp corners, something that according to many cannot be overlooked and considered as a natural formation.

Interestingly statue-like features have also been identified near the underwater complex. According to divers, there is a giant head, located approximately two kilometers from the main complex that could have been a giant statue in the distant past.

Prof. Masaaki Kimura, a marine geologist at the University of the Ryukyus in Okinawa has spent several years studying the Yonaguni monument. Kimura suggests that these are monuments are made by man and that they are proof of an ancient civilization that vanished beneath the ocean.

According to Prof. Kimura, if someone claims that the five layers on the Yonaguni site had been carved by nature, you would find debris from the erosion accumulated around the site, but until today, no rock fragments have yet been found. According to Kimura’s research, remains of what appears to be a road are present around the Yonaguni complex, which offers “tangible” proof” that the construction of this complex can be attributed to ancient man’s ingenuity and advanced methods of construction.

1) The Sumerians, the Oldest Civilization

The oldest civilization in ancient Mesopotamia was ancient Sumer. Source

Ancient Sumer was the first of the ancient Mesopotamian civilizations to develop. It is thought that somewhere around 5000BC was about the time of origin. The exact dating of its beginning has proven to be quite difficult. Smaller settlements appear in the region much earlier than this time. These eventually expanded into city-states that soon became the cornerstone of Sumeria.

Evidence points to roughly a dozen smaller city-states by the fourth millennium B.C. These usually consisted of a walled metropolis dominated by a ziggurat. An iconic, tiered, pyramid-like temple associated with the Sumerian religion.

Major Sumerian city-states included Eridu, Ur, Nippur, Lagash, and Kish. The oldest civilization and most sprawling was Uruk, a thriving trading hub that boasted six miles of defensive walls and a population of between 40,000 and 80,000. At its peak, around 2800 B.C., it was most likely the largest city in the world.

The Sumerian Ziggurat of Ur of one of the first great cities of ancient Mesopotamia.

The city’s houses were made of bundled marsh reeds or mud bricks. They had complex irrigation canals that were dug to harness the silt-laden waters of the Tigris and Euphrates for farming.

It was here that the first written languages appear, around 3000BC, in the form of Cuneiform writing. The Sumerian writing system would revolutionize the way humans communicate and has influenced the world dramatically.

An artist’s impression of the ancient Sumerian city of Uruk. Source

The Sumerians were primarily a trading culture, building ships and other transport vessels to enable the exchange of things like ivory, copper, leather and precious stones. It was this aspect of their culture that may have been the inspiration for developing a written language.

The Sumerian King List is a clay tablet that documents the names of most of the ancient rulers of Sumer as well as the lengths of their reigns. It’s a blend of confirmed history mixed with the more mysterious. One early king is said to have lived for 43,200 years. It also includes Sumer’s lone female monarch in the form of Kubaba, a “woman tavern-keeper.” She supposedly took the throne in the city-state of Kish sometime around 2500 B.C.

The origins of the sixty-second minute and sixty-minute hour can be traced all the way back to ancient Mesopotamia. Like modern mathematics is a decimal system based on the number ten, the Sumerians mainly used a structure that was based around groupings of 60.

The Riddle of Vanishing Civilizations: How Did It Happen?

Why is it we have such a romantic fascination with ancient ruins left by civilizations that mysteriously vanished? World renowned locations like Machu Picchu, Petra, Chichen Itza, Angkor Wat, Mesa Verde, and Ephesus are only the tip of the iceberg. Abandoned cities and collapsed cultures are scattered around the globe and throughout human history.

Students of art and architecture are intrigued by the physical remains, but part of the appeal must also be the mysteries they hold.

How could a powerful and sophisticated society just cease to exist?

Was it a sudden collapse caused by natural disasters, or a gradual decline brought about by war, climate change or catastrophic blunders on the part of inept or oblivious rulers?

Ancient ruins are fascinating examples of our ancestors’ ingenuity, but these failed cultures and their mysterious abandoned cities are also stony reminders that despite careful planning, good intentions and our best technology, we can still get it wrong. History has shown that all it takes is some bad luck, poor judgement, and head-in-the-sand complacency.

A city in ruins isn’t necessarily an ideal place to look for the best path forward, but it may be riddled with roads to avoid. And if this is true, we hope this series on vanishing civilizations will be food for thought for all of us.

Archaeologists have found Stone-Age implements, Khoisan cave paintings, arrowheads, pottery, and pebble tools in several areas of Zimbabwe, a suggestion of human habitation for thousands of years, and the ruins of stone buildings provide evidence of more recent civilization. The most impressive of these sites is the Great Zimbabwe ruins, after which the country is named, located near Masvingo. Evidence suggests that these stone structures were built between the 9th and 13th centuries AD by indigenous Africans who had established trading contacts with commercial centers on Africa's southeastern coast.

The Mapungubwe people, a Bantu-speaking group of migrants from present-day South Africa, inhabited the Great Zimbabwe site from about AD 1000 - 1550, displacing earlier Khoisan people. From about 1100, the fortress took shape, reaching its peak by the fifteenth century. These were the ancestors of the Kalanga and Karanga people. The Royal Totem was Moyo. Today bearers of the Moyo Totem are found amongst The Kalanga people in Zimbabwe and Botswana as well as the Karanga people in the Masvingo area. According to Prof. Thomas Huffman (chairman of the wits school of Archeology, Geography and Environmental Studies), Kalanga was the language of the Mapungubwe Kingdom, which predates the Great Zimbabwe kingdom. He further suggests that the Karanga dialect could have emerged from Kalanga as a result of influence from Zezuru. However other researchers insist that Kalanga is a derivative of Karanga. They believe that Kalanga must have emerged as a result of the corruption of the Karanga dialect by invading Ndebele. The later seems less likely if one considers that Kalanga is spoken in areas where the invading Ndebele did not penetrate. Unadulterated Kalanga is still spoken in Shoshong Botswana, where ruins similar to Great Zimbabwe are found. Other ruins similar to Great Zimbabwe are found in Lusvingo, Khami, Dlodlo, and other areas where Kalanga is still the language spoken by the local communities. The self-designations Kalanga and Karanga are the same word pronounced differently because of the lexical shift of r to l characteristic of how the languages are related to each other.

There have been many civilizations in Zimbabwe as is shown by the ancient stone structures at Khami, Great Zimbabwe, and Dhlo-Dhlo. The first major civilization to become established as the Mwene Mutapa (or Monomotapas), who was said to have built Great Zimbabwe, in the ruins of which was found the soapstone bird that features on the Zimbabwean flag. By the mid-1440s, King Mutota's empire included almost all of the Rhodesian (Zimbabwean) plateau and extensive parts of what is now Mozambique. The wealth of this empire was based on small-scale industries, for example, iron smelting, textiles, gold, and copper, along with agriculture. The regular inhabitants of the empire's trading towns were the Swahili merchants with whom trade was conducted.

Later they formed the Rozwi Empire, which continued until the nineteenth century.

The Ancient Civilizations that Came Before: Building on the Ruins of the Ancestors – Part 2 - History

Are ruins of a universal ancient civilization submerged?

Credit: Adobe Stock - Sven Bachstroem

Despite our cultural, traditional, religious, and linguistic differences, humans are often alike. That is not surprising because we all belong to the same race.

When we study our ancient past, we find striking similarities between cultures separated by vast distances.

Ancient people who were not supposed to have contacted each other constructed almost identical buildings, used the same symbols, and relied on similar religious rites in their daily lives.

There is no doubt prehistoric civilizations shared universal scientific and technological knowledge.

Are these striking ancient similarities we encounter world-wide a result of a universal mind or rather a legacy of a universal ancient civilization that gave birth to all other ancient cultures across the world?

Was there once a global mother civilization that predated all ancestral civilizations?

Today, Mesopotamia is recognized as the cradle of civilization, but in recent years, some scholars have challenged this theory.

"More and more evidence confirms a very brave thesis, according to which the Balkan Peninsula, rather than ancient Mesopotamia that is the cradle of our civilization.

The evidence of a little-known culture preceding Egyptian and even Sumerian culture has been attracting the attention of researchers, turning everything we know about antiquity upside down.

Remains of this ancient society have gradually been emerging from the ashes of human history, taking us some 6-7 millennia back in time when a highly-advanced unknown civilization flourished in our lands, a period which preceded Sumer and Akkad by at least one millennium." 1

It is true that around 8,000 years ago, people in Mesopotamia practiced agriculture and ancient Sumerians led the foundation of what is today defined as a civilization.

We cannot dispute the fact that Mesopotamia changed the world. Still, we also cannot ignore that there are ancient underwater ruins that pre-date the Sumerian civilization .

These structures testify to the existence of even older cultures present on our planet.

As an example, we can mention Dwarka has long been considered a mythic place.

However, the discovery of underwater ruin in the Gulf of Cambay has confirmed Dwarka did exist, and the vast city,

"is believed to pre-date the oldest known remains in the subcontinent by more than 5,000 years.

Mainstream scientists maintain that ancient Indian culture/civilization goes back some 4-5 thousand years. Yet the ruins below the Gulf of Cambay go back at least 9 thousand years, i.e. to the time when the area submerged underwater.

This means that the city must have existed before the flooding, i.e. at least 9 thousand years ago." 2

We must also consider the fact that most of our oceans remain unexplored.

This means we cannot dismiss the possibility that even older than 9,000 years can lie hidden in the waters awaiting our discovery.

Can remains of a universal prehistoric civilization be submerged? It is certainly possible.

There are so many similarities between ancient civilizations that it impossible to discuss all of them in this article, but we can mention a few examples.

Research of connection between ancient people reveals that pyramids and dolmens were standard in different parts of the world.

"Most people think of Egypt when the word 'pyramid' is mentioned.

Although the Egyptian pyramids are today most well-known and keep attracting tourists, we must not forget that pyramids were built worldwide in ancient times.


Ancient dolmens are yet another great example of ancient universal thinking.

It is obvious the ancient traditions were the same despite the vast distance separating these cultures. Let us also keep in mind that the builders of the dolmens were unrelated to each other.

Intriguing, isn't it?" 3

We find hand paintings depicted in rock art around the world and for some unknown reason, our ancestors carved the spiral symbol on countless rocks, sculptures, boulders, and ancient cave walls worldwide.


There are of course different opinions,

"as to how far these civilizations can be regarded as isolated and separate but no doubt history reveals large scale social unities with easily recognized cultural characteristics.

Further, these unities exhibit periods of growth maturity and decline: this phenomenon seems to be universal, for it is found in the civilizations of Central America as well as in those of the old world.

It is indeed an amazing panorama which history reveals there can be no doubt about the general nature of the course of events, however obscure the details may be.

Civilizations go up hill and down hill with a certain inevitability." 4

It is obvious our ancestors on different continents had more in common than we previously thought.

it is valid to ask whether this universal knowledge was a legacy of a long-gone mother culture whose people survived a catastrophe and created new civilizations across the world?

The Ancient Civilizations that Came Before: Building on the Ruins of the Ancestors – Part 2 - History

Discovery: The Lost Continent of Atlantis
Map Evidence
Ancient Writings About Atlantis


"This is probably the greatest discovery in World history" was stated by Maxine Asher, the co-director of a scientific expedition that found Atlantis at the bottom of the ocean reported United Press International (UPI) and major newspapers in the United States during the summer of 1973.

"Maxine Asher said that scuba divers found data to prove the existence of the super-civilization which legend says sank beneath the sea thousands of years ago"

. "the divers had found evidence of roads and large columns some with concentric spiral motifs, in the exact place described by the Greek philosopher Plato" (beyond the Pillars of Hercules, off Spain).

'The group of some 70 scientists, teachers and adventurers was endorsed by Pepperdine University in Los Angeles, California" .

In the following pages shall be revealed over 30 ruins, including pyramids, domes, paved roads, rectangular buildings, columns, canals and artifacts that have been found on the ocean bottoms from the Bahamas to the nearby coasts of Europe and Africa, referencing the vast size of the lost continent.

We will discuss how over a dozen respected historians and famous writers wrote about the Atlantis they believed existed, how the Mayans and Aztecs had told their conquerors that they came from Atlantis and Mu, about ancient tablets photographed in Peru shoeing those two lost continents, Atlantis and Lemuria, and discuss ancient maps clearly showing Atlantis. We shall explore geological evidence that Atlantis was once above water.

Most importantly, we will recall the Rise and Fall of Atlantis, Lemuria, Thule, Lumania, and other lost continents that had culture, educational systems, technology and government far advanced from where we are here in the 1990's. This information is NOT based on any New Age channeling or psychic recall or manifestations.

It is primarily based on many ancient writings found around the world.

1. City on the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean off Spain, found by Dr. Maxine Asher's expedition in 1973 and reported by UPI. Asher was Interviewed and evidence was Witnessed by Steve Omar, director of the M.I.N.D. International Research Agency, Maui, Hawaii.

2. Pyramid explored by Dr. Ray Brown on the sea floor off the Bahamas in 1970. Brown was accompanied by 4 divers who also found roads, domes, rectangular buildings, unidentified metallic instruments, and a statue holding a "mysterious" crystal containing miniature pyramids. The metal devices and crystals were taken to Florida for analysis at a university there. What was discovered was that the crystal amplified energy that passed through it. Brown interviewed by M.I.N.D.

3. Ruins of roads and buildings found off Bimini Island in the 1960's by the photographed and published expeditions of Dr. Mansan Valentine. Steven Forsberg, co-founder of the Lahaina Times newspaper dove into these ruins in 1982 to witness them first hand. Similar ruins were also photographed off Cay Sal in the Bahamas. The ruins are of the same construction as the oldest city ever found on land, according to archaeologists, in Tiahuanaco , Bolivia, where a calendar was uncovered that shows the exact position of the stars and planets 27,000 years ago. This is more than 20,000 years BEFORE the oldest civilizations in school history books!

4. Similar underwater ruins found off Morocco and photographed 50 to 60 feet underwater.

5. Dr. David Zink found in 1957, off the Bahamas coast, a stylized marble head, building block cast in a mold and a construction piece drilled by a bit, as well as a stone column that he reported radiated energy. Forsberg of M.I.N.D. interviewed Dr. Zink and obtained the photographs.

6. A ruined harbor like complex discovered on the sea floor off Bimini by Captain John Alexander.

7. The deep sea diving submarine Aluminaut discovered a well preserved paved road on the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean make of blacktop magnesium oxide, running along the sea floor from Florida to South Carolina.

8. Temple pillars, buildings, statues, wide curving boulevards with smaller avenues branching out like spokes in a wheel, majestic temples and pyramids videotaped by Captain Reyes Miraga on the Spanish named salvage ship "Talia" .

9. A huge 11 room pyramid found 10,000 feet under water in the mid Atlantic Ocean with a huge crystal top, as reported by Tony Benlk.

10. Several acres of white marble-like ruins found on tile ocean floor off Cuba reported by Lieceser Hemingway.

11. Mysterious dome structures reportedly seen in clear water by several pilots in the Straits of Florida.

12. Soviet expeditions to the Atlantic Ampere Seamount resulted in photographs of ruins destroyed by lava (like the Aztecs and Mayans wrote Atlan was destroyed by). This discovery was in the New York Times newspaper May 21, 1978. The photos were developed by the Academy's Petrovsky Marakuyev and reported by the deputy Director of the Soviet Academy of Science's Institute of Oceanography, Professor Aksyonove, who also reported ruins found off Cadiz, Spain in the same area as Dr. Maxine Asher's previous discovery.

13. 1981 expedition of P. Cappellano discovered mysterious ruins with strange symbols on them on the sea floor off the Canary Islands.

14. 1977 report of a huge pyramid found off Cay Sal in the Bahamas, photographed by Ari Marshall's expedition, about 150 feet underwater. The pyramid was about 650 feet high. Mysteriously, the surrounding water was lit by sparkling white water flowing out of the openings in the pyramid and surrounded by green water, instead of the black water everywhere else at that depth.

15. An urn brought to the surface by Dr. Asher's expedition.

16. The foundations of a 100 by 75 foot structure photographed on the sea bottom off Andros Island.

17. A sunken city about 400 miles off Portugal found by Soviet expeditions led by Boris Asturua, with buildings made of extremely strong concrete and plastics. He said "the remains of streets suggests the use of monorails for transportation". He added that he brought up a statue.

18. A six foot column or spire protruding from a double circular gear-like base embedded in the ocean floor, with peculiar light emanations from the bottom of the shaft showing up in photos taken by Dr. William Bell in 1958.

19. Pillars found on the Atlantic floor in 1969 by Robert Fero and Michael Grumley, a chunk of which was carved from rock NOT found anywhere in that part of the world.

20. A road off the Bahamas explored by Dr. Manson Valentine.

21. Dimitri Rebikoff, using his underwater platform and a special collecting lens, reported ruins found encircling an underwater freshwater spring.

22. Marble Acropolis underwater across five acres of fluted columns raised on pillars.

23. Heinrich Schliemann, the man who found and excavated the famous ruins of Troy King Chronos of Atlantis! IDENTICAL pottery was found in Tiahuanaco, Bolivia.

24. Twenty researchers, including archaeologists, a marine biologist, geologist, and cartographer dove onto ruins on the sea floor off Bimini in 1975 and brought back artifacts from which they concluded that the walls and roads were made of materials not found in that part of the world.

Plato and others wrote that Atlantis was a huge continent like Africa, stretching across the Atlantic. The Aztecs, Mayans and Incas and other Indian tribes told explorers of the sunken ATLAN in the Atlantic and the sunken MU (Lemuria) in the Pacific.

In the Pacific, ruins of an ancient city were explored on the ocean floor off Ponape Island. Another was found underwater 30 miles off Easter Island. A ruined road on Karotonga Island goes into the ocean, runs underwater for many miles, and comes out of the ocean on another island in a straight line! Professor Menzies, from Duke University, photographed a ruined civilization on the sea bottom between Peru and Tahiti with unknown hieroglyphics on a column.

Monolithic ruins from a lost civilization were found on a half dozen South Pacific Islands, which are said to be Lemurian mountain peaks above water.

1. Professor Charles Hapgood, Professor of Geology at New Hampshire University, reported that a large unknown Atlantic Island appears on an ancient map (the famous Piri Reis map seen on TV and in dozens of books).

2. An ancient map that King Henry owned in 1500 A.D. clearly shows Atlantis.

3. Greek documents and maps showing Atlantis that Christopher Columbus studied before he set sail for America, including the 1482 Benincasa Map showing Atlantis islands that no longer exist!

A ncient map that King Henry owned in 1500 A.D. clearly shows Atlantis.

1482 Benincasa Map showing 3 Atlantis islands that no longer exist.


1. Plato wrote a detailed account of Atlantis with its location, later history, culture, and destruction.

2. Ancient writings from the Aztecs and Mayans like the Chilam Balam , Dresden Codex, Popol Vuh , Codex Cortesianus, and Troano Manuscript were also translated into histories of the destruction of Atlantis and Lemuria .

3. The Oera Linda Book from Holland is said to be one of the oldest books ever found. Adela tells of the destruction of the large Atlantic island by earthquakes and tidal waves.

4. The ancient Greek historian Diodorus wrote that thousands of years earlier Phoenicians had been to the immense Atlantic island (where Plato wrote Atlantis was). (Note that Phoenician hieroglyphics have been found on numerous ruins in the South American Jungles that are so ancient that the "white" Indian tribes nearby lost memory of who built these ruins). Diodorus wrote that the Atlanteans had WAR with the Amazonians!

5. The Greek Kantor reported visiting Egypt where they saw a marble column carved with hieroglyphics about Atlantis.

6. Greek historian Ammianus Marcellinus wrote about the destruction of Atlantis (he was highly respected).

7. Proculus visited the islands off Africa (Canaries or Azores) where the natives told him of the destruction of Atlantis around 450 A.D. long before that date).

8. Plutarch wrote about the lost continent in his book "Lives".

9. Herodotus, regarded by some as the greatest historians of the ancients, wrote about the mysterious island civilization in the Atlantic and a city on it located in the region the Dr. Asher expedition found just that!

10. The Greek historian Timagenus wrote of the war between Atlantis and Europe and said tribes in ancient France said that was their original home. (Note that clear bright paintings in caves in France clearly show people wearing 20th century clothing: one painting led to an underground pyramid complex. French historian and archaeologist Robert Charroux dated them at 15,000 B.C.

11. Claudius Aelianus referred to Atlantis in his 3rd century work "The Nature of Animals".

12. Theopompos (Greek historian) wrote of the huge size of Atlantis and it's cities of Machimum and Eusebius and a golden age free from disease and manual labor.

13. James Churchward wrote several volumes of books documenting ancient writings he claims to have translated in Southeast Asia concerning Atlantis and Mu, while geologist William Niven claimed to have excavated identical tablets in Mexico.

14. Dr. George Hunt Williamson, who authored several books on his Atlantean-Lemurian research in the 1950's, was an anthropologist explorer once listed in Who's Who in America. Williamson wrote how descendants of the Incas led him to an ancient manuscript in a temple in the Andes Mountains that told of the destruction of Atlantis and Mu, which had an advanced technology, by earthquakes and tidal waves. Williamson also visited dozens of Indian tribes in the United States and Mexico that told him of Atlantis and Mu, including the Hopi Indians.

15. Tablet from Lhasa. Tibet and also from Easter Island.

Human footprints and shoe prints, a perfectly engineered cube, Jewelry, a prehistoric animal with a hole in its skull that scientists admit only a bullet could make, a remnant of a screw, and other modern artifacts have been found in layered rock strata geologists admit formed on these objects MILLIONS OF YEARS AGO! All of these discoveries were printed in public daily news papers when they occurred, and left out of history books simply because historians could not explain them with THEIR theories.

Most all ancient civilizations believed in the TITANS, the race of giant humans that inhabited Earth long ago. Different races knew them by different names. These 7 to 12 foot humanoids were thought to be legendary until the excavation of over a dozen skeletons 8 to 12 feet tall, around the world, shocked archaeologists. These skeletons were positively human. Some of these skeletal remains are on Maui in lava caves near Ulupalakua and Olowalu. The Spanish Conquistadors left diaries of wild blond-harried, blue-eyed 8 to 12 foot high men running around in the Andes during the conquest of the Incas. A couple were reportedly captured but died en route to Europe. If giant animals (dinosaurs) were possible then why not giant men?

The Germans and the Nordic Scandinavians spoke of a vanished continent in the North Atlantic ocean called THULE with the civilization of HYPERBOREA located on it.

THULE reported stretched into what is now the northern polar ice cap where it is buried underneath miles of ice so we cannot see It.


Numerous observers have suggested that the Book of Mormon appears to be a work of fiction that parallels others within the 19th-century "mound-builder" genre that was pervasive at the time. [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] Some nineteenth-century archaeological finds (e.g., earth and timber fortifications and towns, [13] the use of a plaster-like cement, [14] ancient roads, [15] metal points and implements, [16] copper breastplates, [17] head-plates, [18] textiles, [19] pearls, [20] native North American inscriptions, North American elephant remains etc.) were well-publicized at the time of the publication of the Book of Mormon and there is incorporation of some of these ideas into the narrative. References are made in the Book of Mormon to then-current understanding of pre-Columbian civilizations, including the Formative Mesoamerican civilizations such as the (Pre-Classic) Olmec, Maya, and Zapotec.

Smithsonian Institution Edit

During the early 1980s, rumors circulated in Mormon culture that the Book of Mormon was being used by the Smithsonian to guide primary archaeological research. These rumors were brought to the attention of Smithsonian directors who, by 1982, sent a form letter to inquiring parties stating that the Smithsonian did not use the Book of Mormon to guide any research, and included a list of specific reasons Smithsonian archaeologists considered the Book of Mormon historically unlikely. In 1998, the Smithsonian revised the form letter and stated that Book of Mormon had not been used by the Smithsonian in any form of archaeological research. [21] Mormon scholars speculated that this was because the earlier version of the letter contradicts some aspects of research published by Smithsonian staff members. Non-Mormon scholars note that the Smithsonian has not retracted any of its previous statements and feel that the response was toned down to avoid negative public relations with Mormons. Terryl Givens speculates that the change in the statement was an effort to avoid controversy. [22]

National Geographic Society Edit

The Institute for Religious Research posted on their website a 1998 letter from National Geographic Society that stated that they were unaware of any archaeological evidence that would support the Book of Mormon. [23] It is no longer posted on their website. [24]

Critics of the Book of Mormon have argued that there are words and phrases in the book that are anachronistic with archaeological findings. These relate to artifacts, animal, plant, or technology that critics believe did not exist in the Americas during the Book of Mormon time period (before 2500 BC to about 400 AD). The list below summarizes a few of the anachronistic criticisms in the Book of Mormon, as well as perspectives and rebuttals by Mormon apologists.

There are five incidences where horses are mentioned in the Book of Mormon, and are portrayed as being in the forest upon first arrival of the Nephites, "raise(d)," "fed," "prepared" (in conjunction with chariots), used for food, and being "useful unto man". [25] Critics argue that horses were extinct in the Western Hemisphere over 10,000 years ago and did not reappear there until the Spaniards brought them from Europe. Horses were re-introduced to the Americas (Caribbean) by Christopher Columbus in 1493 and to the American continent by Cortés in 1519. [26] Mormon archaeologist John L. Sorenson claims that there is fossil evidence that some New World horses may have survived the Pleistocene–Holocene transition, [27] though these findings are disputed by other Book of Mormon scholars. [28] Alternately, Mormon apologist Robert R. Bennett suggests that the word "horse" in the Book of Mormon may have referred to a different animal, such as a tapir. [29]

Elephants are mentioned twice in the earliest Book of Mormon record, the Book of Ether. Critics argue that the archaeological record suggests that all elephant-like creatures became extinct in the New World around 10,000 BC. The source of this extinction is speculated to be the result of human predation, a significant climate change, or a combination of both factors. [30] [31] A small population of mammoths survived on St. Paul Island, Alaska, up until 3700 BC, [32]

Apologists deal with the "elephant" in much the same way as they treat the "horse" anachronism, countering with the following arguments:

  • Various amateur archaeologists and Mormon authors have cited controversial evidence that North American mound builder cultures were familiar with the elephant. This evidence has long been a topic of debate with modern archaeologists concluding that the elephantine remains were improperly dated, misidentified, or openly fraudulent. [33]

Cattle and cows Edit

There are five separate incidences of "cows" or "cattle" in the New World in the Book of Mormon, including verbiage that they were "raise(d)" and were "for the use of man" or "useful for the food of man," [34] and indicates that "cattle" and "cows" were not considered the same animal. [35] While the Book of Mormon may follow the common biblical precedent of referring to all domesticated animals as "cattle", there is no evidence that Old World cattle (members of the genus Bos) inhabited the New World prior to European contact in the 16th century AD. [36] Further, there is currently no archaeological evidence of American bison having been domesticated. [37] It is widely accepted that the only large mammals to be domesticated in the Americas were the llama and the alpaca and that no species of goats, deer, or sheep were fully domesticated before the arrival of the Europeans to the continent.

Some Mormon apologists believe that the term "cattle," as used in the Book of Mormon is more general and does not exclusively mean members of the genus Bos. Thus, they claim the term "cattle" may refer to mountain goats llamas or the ancestor of the American bison, Bison antiquus (of the sub family Bovinae). [38]

Sheep Edit

"Sheep" are mentioned in the Book of Mormon metaphorically at various places in the Nephite record [39] but are conspicuously absent in the list of animals observed in the New World upon the arrival of the Nephites. [40] In one instance sheep are described as being possessed by the Jaredites in the Americas at approximately 2300 BC. [41] Another verse mentions "lamb-skin" worn by enemy armies of robbers about their loins (circa AD 21). [42] However, domesticated sheep are known to have been first introduced to the Americas during the second voyage of Columbus in 1493. [ citation needed ]

Mormon apologists argue the following to deal with this anachronism:

  • One apologist cites the discovery of some charred wool cloth in a grave during a dig in central Mexico in 1935. [43] However, the discovering archeologists noted their uncertainty in determining if the grave was pre-Spanish. [44]
  • Some suggest that the word "sheep" may refer to another species of animal that resembled sheep such as big horn sheep or llamas. [45] Critics point out that big horn sheep have never been domesticated by humans. [citation needed] Llamas and Alpacas are native to the Andes in South America. [46]
  • The sheep referred to by the Jaredites, as the reference is not long after their arrival around 2500 BC, is referring to Old World sheep as it is mentioned in the Book of Mormon that the Jaredites brought animals and birds with them, [47][48] and the reference to lamb-skins may refer to wild sheep that were hunted. No evidence of domesticated sheep has been found in the Americas prior to Columbus. [49]

Goats Edit

"Goats" are mentioned three times in the Book of Mormon [50] placing them among the Nephites and the Jaredites (i.e., between 2500 BC and 400 AD). In two of the verses, "goats" are distinguished from "wild goats", indicating that there were at least two varieties, one of them possibly domesticated.

Domesticated goats are known to have been introduced on the American continent by Europeans in the 15th century, [ citation needed ] 1000 years after the conclusion of the Book of Mormon, and nearly 2000 years after goats are last mentioned in the Book of Mormon. The aggressive mountain goat is indigenous to North America. There is no evidence that it was ever domesticated. [ citation needed ] Mormon Apologist Matthew Roper has countered these claims, pointing out that 16th-century Spanish friars used the word "goat" to refer to native Mesoamerican brocket deer. [51] There is no evidence that brocket deer were ever domesticated. [ citation needed ]

Swine Edit

"Swine" are referred to twice in the Book of Mormon, [52] [53] and states that the swine were "useful for the food of man" among the Jaredites. [53] There have not been any remains, references, artwork, tools, or any other evidence suggesting that swine were ever present in the pre-Columbian New World. [54]

Apologists note that peccaries (also known as javelinas), which bear a superficial resemblance to pigs and are in the same subfamily Suinae as swine, have been present in South America since prehistoric times. [55] Mormon authors advocating the original mound-builder setting for the Book of Mormon have similarly suggested North American peccaries (also called "wild pigs") [56] as the "swine" of the Jaredites. [57] The earliest scientific description of peccaries in the New World in Brazil in 1547 referred to them as "wild pigs." [58]

Though it has not been documented that peccaries were bred in captivity, it has been documented that peccaries were tamed, penned, and raised for food and ritual purposes in the Yucatán, Panama, the southern Caribbean, and Columbia at the time of the Conquest. [59] Archaeological remains of peccaries have been found in Mesoamerica from the Preclassic (or Formative) period up until immediately before Spanish contact. [60] Specifically, peccary remains have been found at Early Formative Olmec civilization sites, [61] which civilization Mormon apologists correlate to the Book of Mormon Jaredites.

Barley and wheat Edit

"Barley" is mentioned three times and "wheat" once in the Book of Mormon narrative with the ground being "tilled" to plant barley and wheat at one geographical location, in the 1st and 2nd century BC according to Book of Mormon chronology. [62] The introduction of domesticated modern barley and wheat to the New World was made by Europeans after 1492. [63] The Book of Mormon claims that non-specific "seeds" were brought from the land of Jerusalem and planted on arrival in the New World and produced a successful yield. [64] To date, the existing evidence suggests that the introduction of Old World flora and fauna to the American continent happened during the Columbian exchange. [65]

FARMS scholar Robert Bennett argues the following to deal with this anachronism:

  • That the words "barley" and "wheat" in the Book of Mormon may actually be referring to other crops in the Americas, such as Hordeum pusillum. [66][67] Most Hordeum pusillum has been found in Iowa, dating back to around 2,500 years ago. [68]
  • That these words may refer to genuine varieties of New World barley and wheat, which are as yet undiscovered in the archaeological record.
  • That the Norse, after reaching North America, claimed to have found what they called "self-sown wheat". [69]

Research on this matter supports two possible explanations. First, the terms barley and wheat, as used in the Book of Mormon, may refer to certain other New World crop plants that were given Old World designations and second, the terms may refer to genuine varieties of New World barley and wheat. For example, the Spanish called the fruit of the prickly pear cactus a "fig," and emigrants from England called maize "corn," an English term referring to grains in general. A similar practice may have been employed when Book of Mormon people encountered New World plant species for the first time. [70]

Bennett describes the use of Hordeum pusillum, also known as "little barley," a species of grass native to the Americas. The seeds are edible, and this plant was part of the pre-Columbian Eastern Agricultural Complex of cultivated plants used by Native Americans. Hordeum pusillum was unknown in Mesoamerica, where there is no evidence of pre-Columbian barley cultivation. Evidence exists that this plant was domesticated in North America in the Woodland periods contemporary with mound-builder societies (early centuries AD) and has been carbon-dated to 2,500 years ago. [71] [72] [73] Barley samples that date to 900 AD were also found in Phoenix, Arizona, and samples from Southern Illinois date between 1 and 900 AD. [74]

Silk Edit

The Book of Mormon mentions the use of "silk" in the New World four times. [75] "Silk" ordinarily refers to material that is created from the cocoon of one of several Asian moths, predominantly Bombyx mori this type of silk was unknown in pre-Columbian America.

Mormon scholar John L. Sorenson documents several materials which were used in Mesoamerica to make fine cloth equivalent to silk, some of which the Spanish actually called "silk" upon their arrival, including the fiber (kapok) from the seed pods of the ceiba tree, the cocoons of wild moths, the fibers of silkgrass (Achmea magdalenae), the leaves of the wild pineapple plant, and the fine hair of the underbelly of rabbits. [76] He alleges that the inhabitants of Mexico used the fiber spun by a wild silkworm to create a fabric. [77]

The Aztecs used a silk material taken from nests made by two indigenous insects, the moth Eucheira socialis and the butterfly Gloveria psidii. [78] [79] The nests were cut and pieced together to make a fabric, rather than extracting and spinning the fiber as in modern silk. Spinning of silk from what are thought to be the same insects has been reported in more recent times, though its use in pre-Columbian times has been debated. [80]

Old World artifacts and products Edit

Chariots or wheeled vehicles Edit

The Book of Mormon contains two accounts of "chariots" being used in the New World. [81]

Critics argue that there is no archaeological evidence to support the use of wheeled vehicles in Mesoamerica, especially since many parts of ancient Mesoamerica were not suitable for wheeled transport. Clark Wissler, the Curator of Ethnography at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City, noted: "we see that the prevailing mode of land transport in the New World was by human carrier. The wheel was unknown in pre-Columbian times." [82]

A comparison of the South American Inca civilization to Mesoamerican civilizations shows the same lack of wheeled vehicles. Although the Incas used a vast network of paved roads, these roads are so rough, steep, and narrow that they appear to be unsuitable for wheeled use. Bridges that the Inca people built, and even continue to use and maintain today in some remote areas, are straw-rope bridges so narrow (about 2–3 feet wide) that no wheeled vehicle can fit. Inca roads were used mainly by chaski message runners and llama caravans.

Some Mormon apologists argue the following to deal with this anachronism:

  • One apologist has suggested that the "chariots" mentioned in the Book of Mormon might refer to mythic or cultic wheeled vehicles. [83]
  • Some apologists point out that pre-Columbian wheeled toys have been found in Mesoamerica, indicating that the wheel was known by ancient American peoples. [84][85] Some of these wheeled toys were referred to by Smithsonian archaeologist William Henry Holmes and archaeologist Désiré Charnay as "chariots." [86][87]
  • One Mormon apologist argues that few chariot fragments have been found in the Middle East dating to Biblical times (apart from the disassembled chariots found in Tutankhamun's tomb), and therefore wheeled chariots did exist in the Book of Mormon timeframe and it would not be unreasonable to assume that archaeologists have not yet discovered any evidence of them. [88]
    • Critics counter that although few fragments of chariots have been found in the Middle East, there are many images of ancient chariots on pottery and frescoes and in many sculptures of Mediterranean origin, thus confirming their existence in those societies. The absence of these images among pre-Columbian artwork found in the New World (with the exception of Pre-Columbian wheeled toys), they state, does not support the existence of Old World–style chariots in the New World.

    Iron and steel Edit

    "Steel" and "iron" are mentioned several times in the Book of Mormon. [91] Ancient mound-building cultures of North America are known to have mined and worked native copper, silver, gold, and meteoric iron, although evidence of iron being hardened to make steel in ancient times has not been found in the Americas.

    Between 2004 and 2007, a Purdue University archaeologist, Kevin J. Vaughn, discovered a 2000-year-old hematite mine near Nazca, Peru. Although hematite is today mined as an iron ore, Vaughn believes that the hematite was then being mined for use as red pigment. There are also numerous excavations that included iron minerals. [92] He noted:

    Even though ancient Andean people smelted some metals, such as copper, they never smelted iron like they did in the Old World . Metals were used for a variety of tools in the Old World, such as weapons, while in the Americas, metals were used as prestige goods for the wealthy elite. [93]

    Apologists counter that the word "steel" in the Book of Mormon likely refers to a hardened metal other than iron. This argument follows from the fact that the Book of Mormon refers to certain Old World articles made of "steel". [94] Similar "steel" articles mentioned in the King James Version of the Bible (KJV) are actually hardened copper. [95] It has been demonstrated that much of the terminology of the Book of Mormon parallels the language of the KJV. [96] Ancient mound-building cultures of North America are known to have mined and worked native copper, silver, gold, and meteoric iron, although few instances of metallic blades or of deliberately alloyed (or "hardened") copper have been uncovered from ancient North America. [97] [98] Examples of ancient copper knife blades have been found on Isle Royale and around Lake Superior. [99]

    Metal swords, which had "rusted" Edit

    The Book of Mormon makes numerous references to "swords" and their use in battle. [100] When the remnants of the Jaredites' final battle were discovered, the Book of Mormon narrative states that some swords were collected and "the hilts thereof have perished, and the blades thereof were cankered with rust." [101]

    Apologists argue that most references to swords do not speak of the material they were made of, and that they may refer to a number of weapons such as the macuahuitl, a "sword" made of obsidian blades that was used by the Aztecs. It was very sharp and could decapitate a man or horse. [102]

    Cimeters Edit

    "Cimeters" are mentioned in eight instances in the Book of Mormon stretching from approximately 500 BC to 51 BC. [103] Critics argue this existed hundreds of years before the term "scimitar" was coined. The word "cimiter" is considered an anachronism since the word was never used by the Hebrews (from which the Book of Mormon peoples came) or any other civilization prior to 450 AD. [104] The word 'cimeterre' is found in the 1661 English dictionary Glossographia and is defined as "a crooked sword" and was part of the English language at the time that the Book of Mormon was translated. [105] In the 7th century, scimitars generally first appeared among the Turko- Mongol nomads of Central Asia however a notable exception was the sickle sword of ancient Egypt known as the khopesh [106] which was used from 3000 BC and is found on the Rosetta Stone dated to 196 BC. Eannatum, the king of Lagash, is shown on a Sumerian stele from 2500 BC equipped with a sickle sword. [107]

    Apologists Michael R. Ash and William Hamblin postulate that the word was chosen by Joseph Smith as the closest workable English word for a short curved weapon used by the Nephites. [108] Mormon scholar Matthew Roper has noted there are a variety of weapons with curved blades found in Mesoamerica. [109]

    System of exchange based on measures of grain using precious metals as a standard Edit

    The Book of Mormon details a system of measures used by the societies described therein. [110] However, the overall use of metal in ancient America seems to have been extremely limited. A more common exchange medium in Mesoamerica were cacao beans. [111]

    Knowledge of Hebrew and Egyptian languages Edit

    The Book of Mormon describes more than one literate people inhabiting ancient America. The Nephite people are described as possessing a language and writing with roots in Hebrew and Egyptian, and writing part of the original text of the Book of Mormon in this unknown language, called reformed Egyptian. A transcript of some of the characters of this language has been preserved in what had previously been erroneously identified as the "Anthon Transcript" but is now known as the "Caractors document."

    Fifteen examples of distinct scripts have been identified in pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, many from a single inscription. [112] While Maya contains cartouches and is a form of hieroglyphic script like Egyptian, no further resemblance to Hebrew or Egyptian hieroglyphs has been identified. Additionally, professional linguists and Egyptologists do not consider the Caractors document to contain any legitimate ancient writing. Edward H. Ashment called the characters of the transcript "hieroglyphics of the Micmac Indians of northeastern North America". [113]

    The Smithsonian Institution has noted, "Reports of findings of ancient Egyptian Hebrew, and other Old World writings in the New World in pre-Columbian contexts have frequently appeared in newspapers, magazines, and sensational books. None of these claims has stood up to examination by reputable scholars. No inscriptions using Old World forms of writing have been shown to have occurred in any part of the Americas before 1492 except for a few Norse rune stones which have been found in Greenland." [114]

    Linguistic studies on the evolution of the spoken languages of the Americas agree with the widely held model that Homo sapiens arrived in America between 15,000 and 10,000 BC. According to the Book of Mormon, additional immigrants arrived on the American continent about 2500 BC and about 600 BC. [ citation needed ]

    Systems of measuring time (calendars) Edit

    Chronologic dates given in the Nephite portion of the Book of Mormon are stated in terms of the Nephite calendar. The Jaredite abridgment does not contain an apparent calendar, the length of reigns and ages of kings are indicated in years, but no connection beyond that to a continuous calendar is indicated. The system of dates used by the Lamanites is not stated, though the Book of Mormon indicates that Lamanites had a different system of counting hours. [115] The highest numbered month mentioned in the Book of Mormon is the eleventh, and the highest numbered day is the twelfth, but the total number of months in a year and the number of days in a month is not explicitly stated. [116] Even so, it appears that Book of Mormon peoples observed lunar cycles, "months", [117] and that the Nephites observed the Israelite Sabbath at the end of a seven-day week. [118]

    Most North American tribes relied upon a calendar of 13 months, relating to the annual number of lunar cycles. Seasonal rounds and ceremonies were performed each moon. Months were counted in the days between phase cycles of the moon. Calendar systems in use in North America during this historical period relied on this simple system. [119]

    One of the more distinctive features shared among pre-Columbian Mesoamerican civilizations is the use of an extensive system of inter-related calendars. The epigraphic and archaeological record for this practice dates back at least 2,500 years, by which time it appears to have been well-established. [120] The most widespread and significant of these calendars was the 260-day calendar, formed by combining 20 named days with 13 numerals in successive sequence (13 × 20 = 260). [121] Another system of perhaps equal antiquity is the 365-day calendar, approximating the solar year, formed from 18 "months" × 20 named days + 5 additional days. These systems and others are found in societies of that era such as the Olmec, Zapotec, Mixe-Zoque, Mixtec, and Maya (whose system of Maya calendars are widely regarded as the most intricate and complex among them) reflected the vigesimal (base 20) numeral system and other numbers, such as 7, 9, 13, and 19. [122]

    Early activities Edit

    In the early 1840s, John Lloyd Stephens' two-volume work Incidents of Travel in Central America, Chiapas, and Yucatan was seen by some church members as an essential guide to the ruins of Book of Mormon cities. In the fall of 1842, an article appearing in the church's Times and Seasons alleged that the ruins of Quiriguá, discovered by Stephens, may be the very ruins of Zarahemla or some other Book of Mormon city. [123] Other articles followed, including one published shortly after the death of Joseph Smith. Every Latter Day Saint was encouraged to read Stephens' book and to regard the stone ruins described in it as relating to the Book of Mormon. [124] It is now believed that these Central American ruins date more recent than Book of Mormon times. [125]

    In recent years, there have been differing views among Book of Mormon scholars, particularly between the scholars and the "hobbyists". [126]

    New World Archaeological Foundation Edit

    From the mid-1950s onwards, New World Archaeological Foundation (NWAF), based out of Brigham Young University, has sponsored archaeological excavations in Mesoamerica, with a focus on the Mesoamerican time period known as the Preclassic (earlier than c. AD 200). [127] The results of these and other investigations, while producing valuable archaeological data, have not led to any widespread acceptance by non-Mormon archaeologists of the Book of Mormon account. In 1973, citing the lack of specific New World geographic locations to search, Michael D. Coe, a prominent Mesoamerican archaeologist and Professor Emeritus of Anthropology at Yale University, wrote,

    As far as I know there is not one professionally trained archaeologist, who is not a Mormon, who sees any scientific justification for believing the historicity of the Book of Mormon, and I would like to state that there are quite a few Mormon archaeologists who join this group. [128]

    In 1955, Thomas Stuart Ferguson, an attorney and the founder of the NWAF, received five years of funding from the LDS Church and the NWAF then began to dig throughout Mesoamerica for evidence of the veracity of the Book of Mormon claims. In a 1961 newsletter, Ferguson predicted that although nothing had been found, the Book of Mormon cities would be found within 10 years. The NWAF became part of BYU in 1961 and Ferguson was removed from the director position.

    Eleven years after Ferguson was no longer affiliated with the NWAF, in 1972 Christian scholar Hal Hougey wrote Ferguson questioning the progress given the stated timetable in which the cities would be found. [129] Replying to Hougey, as well as other secular and non-secular requests, Ferguson wrote in a letter dated 5 June 1972: "Ten years have passed . I had sincerely hoped that Book-of-Mormon cities would be positively identified within 10 years—and time has proved me wrong in my anticipation." [129]

    In 1976, fifteen years removed from any archaeological involvement with the NWAF, referring to his own paper, Ferguson wrote a letter in which he stated:

    The real implication of the paper is that you can't set the Book-of-Mormon geography down anywhere—because it is fictional and will never meet the requirements of the dirt-archeology. I should say—what is in the ground will never conform to what is in the book." [130]

    Archaeological efforts have failed to garner complete support from all prominent Mormon scholars. Author and Mormon Professor of Biblical and Mormon scripture Hugh Nibley published the following critical remarks:

    Book of Mormon archaeologists have often been disappointed in the past because they have consistently looked for the wrong things . Blinded by the gold of the pharaohs and the mighty ruins of Babylon, Book of Mormon students have declared themselves "not interested" in the drab and commonplace remains of our lowly Indians. But in all the Book of Mormon we look in vain for anything that promises majestic ruins. [131]

    Though the NWAF failed to establish Book of Mormon archaeology, the archaeological investigations of NWAF-sponsored projects were a success for ancient American archaeology in general which has been recognized and appreciated by non-Mormon archaeologists. [128] Currently BYU maintains 86 documents on the work of the NWAF at the BYU NWAF website these documents are used outside both BYU and the LDS Church by researchers.

    Modern approach and conclusions Edit

    As noted above, there is a general consensus among archaeologists that the archaeological record does not substantiate the Book of Mormon account, and in most ways directly contradicts it. [132] [133]

    An example of the mainstream archaeological opinion of Mormon archaeology is summarized by historian and journalist Hampton Sides:

    Yale's Michael Coe likes to talk about what he calls "the fallacy of misplaced concreteness," the tendency among Mormon theorists like Sorenson to keep the discussion trained on all sorts of extraneous subtopics . while avoiding what is most obvious: that Joseph Smith probably meant "horse" when he wrote down the word "horse". [134]

    Old World Mormon archaeology Edit

    Some Mormon archaeologists and researchers have focused on the Arabian peninsula in the Middle East where they believe the Book of Mormon narrative describes actual locations. These alleged connections include the following:

    • One Mormon apologist believes that an ancient tribe known to have existed on the Arabian Peninsula with a similar name to that of the Book of Mormon figure Lehi may have adopted his name. [135] Other Mormon scholars have not reached this conclusion, as "far too little is yet known about early Arabia to strengthen a link with the historical Lehi, and other explanations are readily available for every point advanced." [136]
    • The Wadi Tayyib al-Ism is considered to be a plausible location for the Book of Mormon River of Laman by some Mormon researchers. [137] This is disputed by other Mormon researchers. [138]
    • Some Mormon apologists believe that the Book of Mormon place name "Nahom" correlates to a location in Yemen referred to as "NHM". [139] According to Jerald and Sandra Tanner this link is disputed by mainstream archaeologists. [140]
    • Mormon scholars believe they have located several plausible sites for the Book of Mormon location "Bountiful". [141]
    • One Mormon apologist believes that an ancient Judean artifact is connected with the Book of Mormon figure Mulek. [142]
    • Several Mormon apologists have proposed a variety of locations on the Arabian Peninsula that they believe could be the Book of Mormon location "Shazer". [143]

    New World Mormon archaeology Edit

    Archaeological studies in the New World that tie Book of Mormon places and peoples to real world locations and civilizations are incredibly difficult since there are generally no landmarks defined in the Book of Mormon that can unambiguously identify real world locations. Generally non-Mormon archaeologists do not consider there to be any authentic Book of Mormon archaeological sites. Various apologists have claimed that events in the Book of Mormon took place in a variety of locations [144] including North America, South America, [145] Central America, and even the Malay Peninsula. [146] These finds are divided into competing models, most notably the Hemispheric Geography Model, the Mesoamerican Limited Geography Model, and the Finger Lakes Limited Geography Model.

    Hemispheric Geography Model Edit

    The Hemispheric Geography Model posits that the events of the Book of Mormon took place over the entirety of the North and South American continents. By corollary many Mormons believe that the three groups mentioned in the Book of Mormon (Jaredites, Nephites, and Lamanites) exclusively populated an empty North and South American Continent, and that Native Americans were all of Israeli descent.

    Speculations from various church leaders has shifted slightly over time, with early Mormon leaders including Orson Pratt taking a traditional stance. [147] [148] [149] [150] This model was also implicitly endorsed in the introduction to the Book of Mormon which, before 2008, stated that Lamanites are the "principal ancestors of the American Indians." [151] More recently, the church has not taken as strong position on the absolute origin of Native American peoples. [152]

    Some Mormon apologists note that on June 4, 1834, during the Zion's Camp trek through Illinois, Joseph Smith stated that the group was "wandering over the plains of the Nephites, recounting occasionally the history of the Book of Mormon, roving over the mounds of that once beloved people of the Lord, picking up their skulls & their bones, as proof of its divine authenticity". [153]

    Criticism of the Hemispheric Model Edit

    Critics have noted that the assumption that Lamanites are the ancestors of the American Indians is wholly unfounded in current archaeological and genetic research. [154]

    Mesoamerican Limited Geography Model Edit

    The Mesoamerican Limited Geography Model posits that the events of the Book of Mormon occurred in a geographically "limited" region in Mesoamerica only hundreds of miles in dimension and that other people were present in the New World at the time of Lehi's arrival. This model has been proposed and advocated by various Mormon apologists in the 20th century (both RLDS and LDS). [155] [156] [157] Geographically limited settings for the Book of Mormon have been suggested by LDS church leaders as well, [158] [159] and this view has been published in the official church magazine, Ensign. [160]

    Mormon apologists believe the following archaeological evidence supports the Mesoamerican Geography Model:

    • Some Mormon apologists argue that there is only a single plausible match with the geography in Mesoamerica centered around the Isthmus of Tehuantepec (current day Guatemala, the southern Mexico States of Tabasco, Chiapas, Oaxaca, Veracruz, and the surrounding area). [161] This region was first proposed as the location of Zarahemla (ruins of Quirigua) in the anonymous newspaper article of October 1, 1842 (Times and Seasons).
    • Mormon apologist John L. Sorenson cites discoveries of fortifications at Becán, Tlaxcala, Puebla, Teotihuacan, and Kaminaljuyu, dated between 100 and 300 AD, as evidence of the Book of Mormon's account of large-scale warfare. [162]
    • Some apologists, and church leaders (including Joseph Smith) believe that the Maya ruins on the Yucatán Peninsula belonged to Book of Mormon peoples [163] LDS efforts to relate anachronistic Mayan ruins to Book of Mormon cities, owes much of its origins to an infatuation with archaeologists Stephens' and Catherwood's discoveries of Mesoamerican ruins, made public more than a decade after the first publication of the Book of Mormon. [164] These findings were cited by early church leaders and publications as confirming evidence. [165] This correlation is clearly problematic however, since conventional archaeology places the pinnacle of Mayan civilization several centuries after the final events in the Book of Mormon supposedly occurred. [citation needed] Critics note that according to Mormon 6:5, Nephite civilization came to an end near the year 384 AD. Copan, Quirigua, and sites in the Yucatàn visited by Stephens and Catherwood, contain artifacts that date more recent than Book of Mormon times. It has not been shown that any of Stephens' artifacts date to Book of Mormon times.
    Criticism of the Mesoamerican Geography Model Edit
    • The Limited Mesoamerican Geography Model has been critiqued by a number of scholars, who suggest that it is not an adequate explanation for Book of Mormon geography and that the locations, events, flora and fauna described in it do not precisely match. [166][167] In response to one of these critiques in 1994, Sorenson reaffirmed his support for a limited Mesoamerican geographical setting. [168]
    • Among apologists, there have been critiques—particularly around the location of the Hill Cumorah, which most Mormons consider to be definitively identified as a location in New York. In a Mesoamerican Limited Geography model, this would require there to be two Cumorahs (which some consider preposterous [169] ).

    Finger Lakes Limited Geography Model Edit

    Some Mormon apologists hold that the events of the Book of Mormon occurred in a small region in and around the Finger Lakes region of New York. Part of the basis of this theory lies on statements made by Joseph Smith and other church leaders. [170] [171] [172] [173] [174] [175]

    Mormon apologists believe the archaeological evidence below supports claims that authentic Book of Mormon sites exist in the Finger Lakes region of New York:

    • Mormon scholar Hugh Nibley drew attention to mound builder works of North America as "an excellent description of Book of Mormon strong places". [176]

    South American Limited Geography Model Edit

    A document in the handwriting of Frederick G. Williams, one of Joseph Smith's counselors and scribes, asserts that Lehi's people landed in South America at thirty degrees south latitude, which is Coquimbo Bay, Chile. Analysis of the history and provenance of this document does not indicate it came from Joseph Smith and looks to just be an opinion from an unknown source. [177]

    Archaeological evidence of large populations Edit

    Mormon scholars have estimated that at various periods in Book of Mormon history, the populations of civilizations discussed in the book ranged between 300,000 and 1.5 million people. [178] The size of the late Jaredite civilization was even larger. According to the Book of Mormon, the final war that destroyed the Jaredites resulted in the deaths of at least two million people. [179]

    From Book of Mormon population estimates, it is evident that the civilizations described are comparable in size to the civilizations of ancient Egypt, ancient Greece, ancient Rome, and the Maya. Such civilizations left numerous artifacts in the form of hewn stone ruins, tombs, temples, pyramids, roads, arches, walls, frescos, statues, vases, and coins. The archaeological problem posed by the earth-, timber-, and metal-working societies described in the Book of Mormon was summarized by Hugh Nibley, a prominent BYU professor:

    We should not be surprised at the lack of ruins in America in general. Actually the scarcity of identifiable remains in the Old World is even more impressive. In view of the nature of their civilization one should not be puzzled if the Nephites had left us no ruins at all. People underestimate the capacity of things to disappear, and do not realize that the ancients almost never built of stone. Many a great civilization which has left a notable mark in history and literature has left behind not a single recognizable trace of itself. We must stop looking for the wrong things. [180]

    Existing ancient records of the New World Edit

    The National Geographic Society has noted, "Reports of findings of ancient Egyptian Hebrew, and other Old World writings in the New World in pre-Columbian contexts have frequently appeared in newspapers, magazines, and sensational books. None of these claims has stood up to examination by reputable scholars. No inscriptions using Old World forms of writing have been shown to have occurred in any part of the Americas before 1492 except for a few Norse rune stones which have been found in Greenland." [114]

    Losses of ancient writings occurred in the Old World, including as a result of deliberate or accidental fires, wars, earthquakes, and floods. Similar losses occurred in the New World. Much of the literature of the pre-Columbian Maya was destroyed during the Spanish conquest in the 16th century. [181] On this point, Michael Coe noted:

    Nonetheless, our knowledge of ancient Maya thought must represent only a tiny fraction of the whole picture, for of the thousands of books in which the full extent of their learning and ritual was recorded, only four have survived to modern times (as though all that posterity knew of ourselves were to be based upon three prayer books and Pilgrim's Progress). [182]

    The Maya civilization also left behind a vast corpus of inscriptions (upwards of ten thousand are known) written in the Maya script, the earliest of which date from around the 3rd century BC with the majority written in the Classic Period (c. 250–900 AD). [183] Mayanist scholarship is now able to decipher a large number of these inscriptions. These inscriptions are mainly concerned with the activities of Mayan rulers and the commemoration of significant events, with the oldest known Long Count date corresponding to December 7, 36 BC, being recorded on Chiapa de Corzo Stela 2 in central Chiapas. [184] None of these inscriptions have been correlated with events, places, or rulers of Book of Mormon. [185]

    One Mormon researcher has referred to ancient Mesoamerican accounts that appear to parallel events recorded in the Book of Mormon. [186]

    Jaredites and the Olmec Edit

    There is no archaeological evidence of the Jaredite people described in the Book of Mormon that is accepted by mainstream archaeologists. Nevertheless, some Mormon scholars believe that the Jaredites were the Olmec civilization, [187] [188] though archaeological evidence supporting this theory is disputed and circumstantial.

    The Jaredites of the Book of Mormon are identified as being primarily located in the land northward as opposed to the land southward, [189] however, no information is discussed specific to the Jaredites as to where the dividing line of the land northward and land southward was.

    The date at which the Jaredites would be considered a civilization is not identified in the Book of Mormon. The Jaredite civilization in the American covenant land is said to have been completely destroyed as the result of a civil war some time after (as late as 400 BC). [190] Lehi's party is said to have arrived in the New World (approximately 590 BC). Olmec civilization flourished in Mesoamerica during the Preclassic period, dating from 1200 BC to about 400 BC.

    Nephites Edit

    No Central or South American civilization is recognized to correlate with the Nephites of the Book of Mormon. The Book of Mormon makes no mention of Lamanites or Nephites erecting impressive works of hewn stone as did the Maya or various South American peoples. [191] Some believe that Nephites lived in the Great Lakes region. [192] Numerous aboriginal fortresses of earth and timber were known to have existed in this region. [193]

    Military fortifications Edit

    There are ten instances in the Book of Mormon in which cities are described as having defensive fortifications. For example, Alma 52:2 describes how the Lamanites "sought protection in their fortifications" in the city of Mulek. [194]

    One archaeologist has noted the existence of ancient Mesoamerican defensive fortifications. [195] According to one article in an LDS Church magazine, military fortifying berms are found in the Yucatán Peninsula. [196] [197] Proponents of the Heartland Model have found it ironic that such great lengths would be taken to find "Moroniesque" aboriginal defensive works so far away from Cumorah, [198] when such works are known to have existed in New York. [199]

    Efforts to correlate artifacts Edit

    Izapa Stela 5 Edit

    In the early 1950s, M. Wells Jakeman of the BYU Department of Archaeology suggested that a complicated scene carved on Stela 5 in Izapa was a depiction of a Book of Mormon event called "Lehi's dream", which features a vision of the tree of life. [200] This interpretation is disputed by other Mormon and non-Mormon scholars. [201] Julia Guernsey Kappelman, author of a definitive work on Izapan culture, finds that Jakeman's research "belies an obvious religious agenda that ignored Izapa Stela 5's heritage". [202]

    Other artifacts Edit

    Sorenson claims that one artifact, La Venta Stela 3, depicts a person with Semitic features ("striking beard and beaked nose"). [203] Mormon researchers such as Robin Heyworth have claimed that Copan Stela B depicts elephants [204] [205] others such as Alfred M Tozzer and Glover M Allen claim it depicts macaws. [206] [207]

    Community Reviews

    This book comes at a critical time in our comprehension of our own past. Archaeological discoveries of the last ten years or so have shaken up long held doctrines and begun to precipitate a radical shift in our perception of ourselves and our place among our ancient ancestors.

    Walls are breaking down between traditionally siloed academic disciplines, such as geology, oceanography, astronomy, radiology, and anthropology, and even religion, resulting in a growing body of evidence for many ideas tha This book comes at a critical time in our comprehension of our own past. Archaeological discoveries of the last ten years or so have shaken up long held doctrines and begun to precipitate a radical shift in our perception of ourselves and our place among our ancient ancestors.

    Walls are breaking down between traditionally siloed academic disciplines, such as geology, oceanography, astronomy, radiology, and anthropology, and even religion, resulting in a growing body of evidence for many ideas that have been previously dismissed as “fringe” or “pseudoscience”.

    This growing evidence allows today's investigators a much more solid foundation than those of the previous generation. Far less speculation is required and the resulting premises are much more well-founded and repeatable, building on the findings of such authors as Graham Hancock, Robert Schoch, and Andrew Collins and integrating ancient scriptures and mythological tales plus countless examples of peer reviewed scholarly papers.

    Mythologies are coming full circle, integrating ancient archetypes into such modern tales as “Watchmen” and “Avengers” and doors are opening for modern archaeology to break into the dawn of a new era where holistic, spiritual and archetypal consciousness will reveal new layers of ancient wisdom long forgotten.

    It is into this milieu that Willis, and other enlightened researchers like him are able to ask dangerous and vital questions. Dangerous because dogmatic doctrine trembles before them. Vital in that our very lives, or perhaps I should say Our Very Life depends on them. Not on the answers, though. But rather on the act of questioning.
    This book is highly recommended for anyone with an interest in either archaeology, mythology, or spirituality. In fact, it could be considered the perfect jumping in point for anyone with a background in any one of those fields and without a lot of experience in the other two. In this intersection, Willis holds a rather unique position, and he draws from and integrates diverse concepts in a way I have not seen elsewhere.

    From Gobekli Tepe, to Apache legend, from Nephilim to Bigfoot, to Denisovans, to the Messiah, to Reptilians, Willis tackles all manner of myth and archetype, informed by evidence, and with a mind open to inductive interpretation rather than the agenda-toting that is all too common among scholars. He examines evidence, then looks behind and underneath it at what may lie still uncovered. So many topics are covered in this book, that it becomes impossible to go into great depth on many. This gives a great opportunity to the reader for further discovery. I have been a long time fan and researcher of many of the topics discussed, yet I found plenty of fresh google fuel herein as Willis brought up many things I had not yet heard of. This book will be a reference I will come back to over and over, and I can’t wait to read the rest of Jim’s books. . more

    Watch the video: 7 πολιτισμοί που χάθηκαν μυστηριωδώς.