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History of technology
The history of technology is the history of the invention of tools and techniques and is one of the categories of world history. Technology can refer to methods ranging from as simple as stone tools to the complex genetic engineering and information technology that has emerged since the 1980s. The term technology comes from the Greek word techne, meaning art and craft, and the word logos, meaning word and speech. It was first used to describe applied arts, but it is now used to describe advancements and changes which affect the environment around us. 
New knowledge has enabled people to create new things, and conversely, many scientific endeavors are made possible by technologies which assist humans in traveling to places they could not previously reach, and by scientific instruments by which we study nature in more detail than our natural senses allow.
Since much of technology is applied science, technical history is connected to the history of science. Since technology uses resources, technical history is tightly connected to economic history. From those resources, technology produces other resources, including technological artifacts used in everyday life.
Technological change affects, and is affected by, a society's cultural traditions. It is a force for economic growth and a means to develop and project economic, political, military power and wealth.
- A much better understanding of the evolution of the universe was achieved, its age (about 13.8 billion years) was determined, and the Big Bang theory on its origin was proposed and generally accepted.
- The age of the solar system, including Earth, was determined, and it turned out to be much older than believed earlier: more than 4 billion years, rather than the 20 million years suggested by Lord Kelvin in 1862. 
- The planets of the solar system and their moons were closely observed via numerous space probes. Pluto was discovered in 1930 on the edge of the solar system, although in the early 21st century, it was reclassified as a dwarf planet (planetoid) instead of a planet proper, leaving eight planets.
- No trace of life was discovered on any of the other planets in our solar system, although it remained undetermined whether some forms of primitive life might exist, or might have existed, somewhere. Extrasolar planets were observed for the first time.
- In 1969, Apollo 11 was launched towards the Moon and Neil Armstrong became the first person from Earth to walk on another celestial body.
- That same year, Soviet astronomer Victor Safronov published his book Evolution of the protoplanetary cloud and formation of the Earth and the planets. In this book, almost all major problems of the planetary formation process were formulated and some of them solved. Safronov's ideas were further developed in the works of George Wetherill, who discovered runaway accretion.
- The Space Race between the United States and the Soviet Union gave a peaceful outlet to the political and military tensions of the Cold War, leading to the first human spaceflight with the Soviet Union's Vostok 1 mission in 1961, and man's first landing on another world—the Moon—with America's Apollo 11 mission in 1969. Later, the first space station was launched by the Soviet space program. The United States developed the first (and to date only) reusable spacecraft system with the Space Shuttle program, first launched in 1981. As the century ended, a permanent manned presence in space was being founded with the ongoing construction of the International Space Station.
- In addition to human spaceflight, unmanned space probes became a practical and relatively inexpensive form of exploration. The first orbiting space probe, Sputnik 1, was launched by the Soviet Union in 1957. Over time, a massive system of artificial satellites was placed into orbit around Earth. These satellites greatly advanced navigation, communications, military intelligence, geology, climate, and numerous other fields. Also, by the end of the 20th century, unmanned probes had visited the Moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and various asteroids and comets. The Hubble Space Telescope, launched in 1990, greatly expanded our understanding of the Universe and brought brilliant images to TV and computer screens around the world.
- was unanimously accepted and significantly developed. The structure of DNA was determined in 1953 by James Watson, Francis Crick, Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins,  following by developing techniques which allow to read DNA sequences and culminating in starting the Human Genome Project (not finished in the 20th century) and cloning the first mammal in 1996.
- The role of sexual reproduction in evolution was understood, and bacterial conjugation was discovered.
- The convergence of various sciences for the formulation of the modern evolutionary synthesis (produced between 1936 and 1947), providing a widely accepted account of evolution. -controlled, randomized, blindedclinical trials became a powerful tool for testing new medicines. drastically reduced mortality from bacterial diseases and their prevalence.
- A vaccine was developed for polio, ending a worldwide epidemic. Effective vaccines were also developed for a number of other serious infectious diseases, including influenza, diphtheria, pertussis (whooping cough), tetanus, measles, mumps, rubella (German measles), chickenpox, hepatitis A, and hepatitis B. and vaccination led to the eradication of the smallpox virus in humans. became powerful diagnostic tool for wide spectrum of diseases, from bone fractures to cancer. In the 1960s, computerized tomography was invented. Other important diagnostic tools developed were sonography and magnetic resonance imaging.
- Development of vitamins virtually eliminated scurvy and other vitamin-deficiency diseases from industrialized societies.
- New psychiatric drugs were developed. These include antipsychotics for treating hallucinations and delusions, and antidepressants for treating depression.
- The role of tobacco smoking in the causation of cancer and other diseases was proven during the 1950s (see British Doctors Study).
- New methods for cancer treatment, including chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and immunotherapy, were developed. As a result, cancer could often be cured or placed in remission.
- The development of blood typing and blood banking made blood transfusion safe and widely available.
- The invention and development of immunosuppressive drugs and tissue typing made organ and tissue transplantation a clinical reality.
- New methods for heart surgery were developed, including pacemakers and artificial hearts. /crack and heroin were found to be dangerous addictive drugs, and their wide usage had been outlawed mind-altering drugs such as LSD and MDMA were discovered and later outlawed. In many countries, a war on drugs caused prices to soar 10–20 times higher, leading to profitable black marketdrugdealing, and in some countries (e.g. the United States) to prison inmate sentences being 80% related to drug use by the 1990s. drugs were developed, which reduced population growth rates in industrialized countries, as well as decreased the taboo of premarital sex throughout many western countries.
- The development of medical insulin during the 1920s helped raise the life expectancy of diabetics to three times of what it had been earlier.
- Vaccines, hygiene and clean water improved health and decreased mortality rates, especially among infants and the young.
Notable diseases Edit
- An influenza pandemic, Spanish Flu, killed anywhere from 20 to 100 million people between 1918 and 1919.
- A new viral disease, called the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, or HIV, arose in Africa and subsequently killed millions of people throughout the world. HIV leads to a syndrome called Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, or AIDS. Treatments for HIV remained inaccessible to many people living with AIDS and HIV in developing countries, and a cure has yet to be discovered.
- Because of increased life spans, the prevalence of cancer, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and other diseases of old age increased slightly. , due to labor-saving devices and technology, along with the increase in home entertainment and technology such as television, video games, and the internet contributed to an "epidemic" of obesity, at first in the rich countries, but by the end of the 20th century spreading to the developing world.
In 1903, Mikhail Tsvet invented chromatography, an important analytic technique. In 1904, Hantaro Nagaoka proposed an early nuclear model of the atom, where electrons orbit a dense massive nucleus. In 1905, Fritz Haber and Carl Bosch developed the Haber process for making ammonia, a milestone in industrial chemistry with deep consequences in agriculture. The Haber process, or Haber-Bosch process, combined nitrogen and hydrogen to form ammonia in industrial quantities for production of fertilizer and munitions. The food production for half the world's current population depends on this method for producing fertilizer. Haber, along with Max Born, proposed the Born–Haber cycle as a method for evaluating the lattice energy of an ionic solid. Haber has also been described as the "father of chemical warfare" for his work developing and deploying chlorine and other poisonous gases during World War I.
In 1905, Albert Einstein explained Brownian motion in a way that definitively proved atomic theory. Leo Baekeland invented bakelite, one of the first commercially successful plastics. In 1909, American physicist Robert Andrews Millikan - who had studied in Europe under Walther Nernst and Max Planck - measured the charge of individual electrons with unprecedented accuracy through the oil drop experiment, in which he measured the electric charges on tiny falling water (and later oil) droplets. His study established that any particular droplet's electrical charge is a multiple of a definite, fundamental value — the electron's charge — and thus a confirmation that all electrons have the same charge and mass. Beginning in 1912, he spent several years investigating and finally proving Albert Einstein's proposed linear relationship between energy and frequency, and providing the first direct photoelectric support for Planck's constant. In 1923 Millikan was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics.
In 1909, S. P. L. Sørensen invented the pH concept and develops methods for measuring acidity. In 1911, Antonius Van den Broek proposed the idea that the elements on the periodic table are more properly organized by positive nuclear charge rather than atomic weight. In 1911, the first Solvay Conference was held in Brussels, bringing together most of the most prominent scientists of the day. In 1912, William Henry Bragg and William Lawrence Bragg proposed Bragg's law and established the field of X-ray crystallography, an important tool for elucidating the crystal structure of substances. In 1912, Peter Debye develops the concept of molecular dipole to describe asymmetric charge distribution in some molecules.
In 1913, Niels Bohr, a Danish physicist, introduced the concepts of quantum mechanics to atomic structure by proposing what is now known as the Bohr model of the atom, where electrons exist only in strictly defined circular orbits around the nucleus similar to rungs on a ladder. The Bohr Model is a planetary model in which the negatively charged electrons orbit a small, positively charged nucleus similar to the planets orbiting the Sun (except that the orbits are not planar) - the gravitational force of the solar system is mathematically akin to the attractive Coulomb (electrical) force between the positively charged nucleus and the negatively charged electrons.
In 1913, Henry Moseley, working from Van den Broek's earlier idea, introduces concept of atomic number to fix inadequacies of Mendeleev's periodic table, which had been based on atomic weight. The peak of Frederick Soddy's career in radiochemistry was in 1913 with his formulation of the concept of isotopes, which stated that certain elements exist in two or more forms which have different atomic weights but which are indistinguishable chemically. He is remembered for proving the existence of isotopes of certain radioactive elements, and is also credited, along with others, with the discovery of the element protactinium in 1917. In 1913, J. J. Thomson expanded on the work of Wien by showing that charged subatomic particles can be separated by their mass-to-charge ratio, a technique known as mass spectrometry.
In 1916, Gilbert N. Lewis published his seminal article "The Atom of the Molecule", which suggested that a chemical bond is a pair of electrons shared by two atoms. Lewis's model equated the classical chemical bond with the sharing of a pair of electrons between the two bonded atoms. Lewis introduced the "electron dot diagrams" in this paper to symbolize the electronic structures of atoms and molecules. Now known as Lewis structures, they are discussed in virtually every introductory chemistry book. Lewis in 1923 developed the electron pair theory of acids and base: Lewis redefined an acid as any atom or molecule with an incomplete octet that was thus capable of accepting electrons from another atom bases were, of course, electron donors. His theory is known as the concept of Lewis acids and bases. In 1923, G. N. Lewis and Merle Randall published Thermodynamics and the Free Energy of Chemical Substances, first modern treatise on chemical thermodynamics.
The 1920s saw a rapid adoption and application of Lewis's model of the electron-pair bond in the fields of organic and coordination chemistry. In organic chemistry, this was primarily due to the efforts of the British chemists Arthur Lapworth, Robert Robinson, Thomas Lowry, and Christopher Ingold while in coordination chemistry, Lewis's bonding model was promoted through the efforts of the American chemist Maurice Huggins and the British chemist Nevil Sidgwick.
Quantum chemistry Edit
Some view the birth of quantum chemistry in the discovery of the Schrödinger equation and its application to the hydrogen atom in 1926. [ citation needed ] However, the 1927 article of Walter Heitler and Fritz London  is often recognised as the first milestone in the history of quantum chemistry. This is the first application of quantum mechanics to the diatomic hydrogen molecule, and thus to the phenomenon of the chemical bond. In the following years much progress was accomplished by Edward Teller, Robert S. Mulliken, Max Born, J. Robert Oppenheimer, Linus Pauling, Erich Hückel, Douglas Hartree, Vladimir Aleksandrovich Fock, to cite a few. [ citation needed ]
Still, skepticism remained as to the general power of quantum mechanics applied to complex chemical systems. [ citation needed ] The situation around 1930 is described by Paul Dirac: 
The underlying physical laws necessary for the mathematical theory of a large part of physics and the whole of chemistry are thus completely known, and the difficulty is only that the exact application of these laws leads to equations much too complicated to be soluble. It therefore becomes desirable that approximate practical methods of applying quantum mechanics should be developed, which can lead to an explanation of the main features of complex atomic systems without too much computation.
Hence the quantum mechanical methods developed in the 1930s and 1940s are often referred to as theoretical molecular or atomic physics to underline the fact that they were more the application of quantum mechanics to chemistry and spectroscopy than answers to chemically relevant questions. In 1951, a milestone article in quantum chemistry is the seminal paper of Clemens C. J. Roothaan on Roothaan equations.  It opened the avenue to the solution of the self-consistent field equations for small molecules like hydrogen or nitrogen. Those computations were performed with the help of tables of integrals which were computed on the most advanced computers of the time. [ citation needed ]
In the 1940s many physicists turned from molecular or atomic physics to nuclear physics (like J. Robert Oppenheimer or Edward Teller). Glenn T. Seaborg was an American nuclear chemist best known for his work on isolating and identifying transuranium elements (those heavier than uranium). He shared the 1951 Nobel Prize for Chemistry with Edwin Mattison McMillan for their independent discoveries of transuranium elements. Seaborgium was named in his honour, making him the only person, along Albert Einstein and Yuri Oganessian, for whom a chemical element was named during his lifetime.
Molecular biology and biochemistry Edit
By the mid 20th century, in principle, the integration of physics and chemistry was extensive, with chemical properties explained as the result of the electronic structure of the atom Linus Pauling's book on The Nature of the Chemical Bond used the principles of quantum mechanics to deduce bond angles in ever-more complicated molecules. However, though some principles deduced from quantum mechanics were able to predict qualitatively some chemical features for biologically relevant molecules, they were, till the end of the 20th century, more a collection of rules, observations, and recipes than rigorous ab initio quantitative methods. [ citation needed ]
This heuristic approach triumphed in 1953 when James Watson and Francis Crick deduced the double helical structure of DNA by constructing models constrained by and informed by the knowledge of the chemistry of the constituent parts and the X-ray diffraction patterns obtained by Rosalind Franklin.  This discovery lead to an explosion of research into the biochemistry of life.
In the same year, the Miller–Urey experiment, conducted by Stanley Miller and Harold Urey demonstrated that basic constituents of protein, simple amino acids, could themselves be built up from simpler molecules in a simulation of primordial processes on Earth. Though many questions remain about the true nature of the origin of life, this was the first attempt by chemists to study hypothetical processes in the laboratory under controlled conditions. 
In 1983 Kary Mullis devised a method for the in-vitro amplification of DNA, known as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which revolutionized the chemical processes used in the laboratory to manipulate it. PCR could be used to synthesize specific pieces of DNA and made possible the sequencing of DNA of organisms, which culminated in the huge human genome project.
An important piece in the double helix puzzle was solved by one of Pauling's students Matthew Meselson and Frank Stahl, the result of their collaboration (Meselson–Stahl experiment) has been called as "the most beautiful experiment in biology".
They used a centrifugation technique that sorted molecules according to differences in weight. Because nitrogen atoms are a component of DNA, they were labelled and therefore tracked in replication in bacteria.
Late 20th century Edit
In 1970, John Pople developed the Gaussian program greatly easing computational chemistry calculations.  In 1971, Yves Chauvin offered an explanation of the reaction mechanism of olefin metathesis reactions.  In 1975, Karl Barry Sharpless and his group discovered a stereoselective oxidation reactions including Sharpless epoxidation,   Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation,    and Sharpless oxyamination.    In 1985, Harold Kroto, Robert Curl and Richard Smalley discovered fullerenes, a class of large carbon molecules superficially resembling the geodesic dome designed by architect R. Buckminster Fuller.  In 1991, Sumio Iijima used electron microscopy to discover a type of cylindrical fullerene known as a carbon nanotube, though earlier work had been done in the field as early as 1951. This material is an important component in the field of nanotechnology.  In 1994, Robert A. Holton and his group achieved the first total synthesis of Taxol.    In 1995, Eric Cornell and Carl Wieman produced the first Bose–Einstein condensate, a substance that displays quantum mechanical properties on the macroscopic scale. 
In 1912 Alfred Wegener proposed the theory of Continental Drift.  This theory suggests that the shapes of continents and matching coastline geology between some continents indicates they were joined together in the past and formed a single landmass known as Pangaea thereafter they separated and drifted like rafts over the ocean floor, currently reaching their present position. Additionally, the theory of continental drift offered a possible explanation as to the formation of mountains Plate Tectonics built on the theory of continental drift.
Unfortunately, Wegener provided no convincing mechanism for this drift, and his ideas were not generally accepted during his lifetime. Arthur Homes accepted Wegener's theory and provided a mechanism: mantle convection, to cause the continents to move.  However, it was not until after the Second World War that new evidence started to accumulate that supported continental drift. There followed a period of 20 extremely exciting years where the Theory of Continental Drift developed from being believed by a few to being the cornerstone of modern Geology. Beginning in 1947 research found new evidence about the ocean floor, and in 1960 Bruce C. Heezen published the concept of mid-ocean ridges.Soon after this, Robert S. Dietz and Harry H. Hess proposed that the oceanic crust forms as the seafloor spreads apart along mid-ocean ridges in seafloor spreading.  This was seen as confirmation of mantle convection and so the major stumbling block to the theory was removed. Geophysical evidence suggested lateral motion of continents and that oceanic crust is younger than continental crust. This geophysical evidence also spurred the hypothesis of paleomagnetism, the record of the orientation of the Earth's magnetic field recorded in magnetic minerals. British geophysicist S. K. Runcorn suggested the concept of paleomagnetism from his finding that the continents had moved relative to the Earth's magnetic poles. Tuzo Wilson, who was a promoter of the sea floor spreading hypothesis and continental drift from the very beginning,  added the concept of transform faults to the model, completing the classes of fault types necessary to make the mobility of the plates on the globe function.  A symposium on continental drift  was held at the Royal Society of London in 1965 must be regarded as the official start of the acceptance of plate tectonics by the scientific community.The abstracts from the symposium are issued as Blacket, Bullard, Runcorn1965.In this symposium, Edward Bullard and co-workers showed with a computer calculation how the continents along both sides of the Atlantic would best fit to close the ocean, which became known as the famous "Bullard's Fit". By the late 1960s the weight of the evidence available saw Continental Drift as the generally accepted theory.
Other theories of the causes of climate change fared no better. The principal advances were in observational paleoclimatology, as scientists in various fields of geology worked out methods to reveal ancient climates. Wilmot H. Bradley found that annual varves of clay laid down in lake beds showed climate cycles. Andrew Ellicott Douglass saw strong indications of climate change in tree rings. Noting that the rings were thinner in dry years, he reported climate effects from solar variations, particularly in connection with the 17th-century dearth of sunspots (the Maunder Minimum) noticed previously by William Herschel and others. Other scientists, however, found good reason to doubt that tree rings could reveal anything beyond random regional variations. The value of tree rings for climate study was not solidly established until the 1960s.  
Through the 1930s the most persistent advocate of a solar-climate connection was astrophysicist Charles Greeley Abbot. By the early 1920s, he had concluded that the solar "constant" was misnamed: his observations showed large variations, which he connected with sunspots passing across the face of the Sun. He and a few others pursued the topic into the 1960s, convinced that sunspot variations were a main cause of climate change. Other scientists were skeptical.   Nevertheless, attempts to connect the solar cycle with climate cycles were popular in the 1920s and 1930s. Respected scientists announced correlations that they insisted were reliable enough to make predictions. Sooner or later, every prediction failed, and the subject fell into disrepute. 
Meanwhile Milutin Milankovitch, building on James Croll's theory, improved the tedious calculations of the varying distances and angles of the Sun's radiation as the Sun and Moon gradually perturbed the Earth's orbit. Some observations of varves (layers seen in the mud covering the bottom of lakes) matched the prediction of a Milankovitch cycle lasting about 21,000 years. However, most geologists dismissed the astronomical theory. For they could not fit Milankovitch's timing to the accepted sequence, which had only four ice ages, all of them much longer than 21,000 years. 
In 1938 Guy Stewart Callendar attempted to revive Arrhenius's greenhouse-effect theory. Callendar presented evidence that both temperature and the CO
2 level in the atmosphere had been rising over the past half-century, and he argued that newer spectroscopic measurements showed that the gas was effective in absorbing infrared in the atmosphere. Nevertheless, most scientific opinion continued to dispute or ignore the theory. 
Another clue to the nature of climate change came in the mid-1960s from analysis of deep-sea cores by Cesare Emiliani and analysis of ancient corals by Wallace Broecker and collaborators. Rather than four long ice ages, they found a large number of shorter ones in a regular sequence. It appeared that the timing of ice ages was set by the small orbital shifts of the Milankovitch cycles. While the matter remained controversial, some began to suggest that the climate system is sensitive to small changes and can readily be flipped from a stable state into a different one. 
Scientists meanwhile began using computers to develop more sophisticated versions of Arrhenius's calculations. In 1967, taking advantage of the ability of digital computers to integrate absorption curves numerically, Syukuro Manabe and Richard Wetherald made the first detailed calculation of the greenhouse effect incorporating convection (the "Manabe-Wetherald one-dimensional radiative-convective model").   They found that, in the absence of unknown feedbacks such as changes in clouds, a doubling of carbon dioxide from the current level would result in approximately 2 °C increase in global temperature.
By the 1960s, aerosol pollution ("smog") had become a serious local problem in many cities, and some scientists began to consider whether the cooling effect of particulate pollution could affect global temperatures. Scientists were unsure whether the cooling effect of particulate pollution or warming effect of greenhouse gas emissions would predominate, but regardless, began to suspect that human emissions could be disruptive to climate in the 21st century if not sooner. In his 1968 book The Population Bomb, Paul R. Ehrlich wrote, "the greenhouse effect is being enhanced now by the greatly increased level of carbon dioxide. [this] is being countered by low-level clouds generated by contrails, dust, and other contaminants. At the moment we cannot predict what the overall climatic results will be of our using the atmosphere as a garbage dump." 
If the earth's temperature increases significantly, a number of events might be expected to occur, including the melting of the Antarctic ice cap, a rise in sea levels, warming of the oceans, and an increase in photosynthesis. [..] Revelle makes the point that man is now engaged in a vast geophysical experiment with his environment, the earth. Significant temperature changes are almost certain to occur by the year 2000 and these could bring about climatic changes.
In 1969, NATO was the first candidate to deal with climate change on an international level. It was planned then to establish a hub of research and initiatives of the organization in the civil area, dealing with environmental topics  as acid rain and the greenhouse effect. The suggestion of US President Richard Nixon was not very successful with the administration of German Chancellor Kurt Georg Kiesinger. But the topics and the preparation work done on the NATO proposal by the German authorities gained international momentum, (see e.g. the Stockholm United Nations Conference on the Human Environment 1970) as the government of Willy Brandt started to apply them on the civil sphere instead.  [ clarification needed ]
Also in 1969, Mikhail Budyko published a theory on the ice-albedo feedback, a foundational element of what is today known as Arctic amplification.  The same year a similar model was published by William D. Sellers.  Both studies attracted significant attention, since they hinted at the possibility for a runaway positive feedback within the global climate system. 
In the early 1970s, evidence that aerosols were increasing worldwide encouraged Reid Bryson and some others to warn of the possibility of severe cooling. Meanwhile, the new evidence that the timing of ice ages was set by predictable orbital cycles suggested that the climate would gradually cool, over thousands of years. For the century ahead, however, a survey of the scientific literature from 1965 to 1979 found 7 articles predicting cooling and 44 predicting warming (many other articles on climate made no prediction) the warming articles were cited much more often in subsequent scientific literature.  Several scientific panels from this time period concluded that more research was needed to determine whether warming or cooling was likely, indicating that the trend in the scientific literature had not yet become a consensus.   
John Sawyer published the study Man-made Carbon Dioxide and the “Greenhouse” Effect in 1972.  He summarized the knowledge of the science at the time, the anthropogenic attribution of the carbon dioxide greenhouse gas, distribution and exponential rise, findings which still hold today. Additionally he accurately predicted the rate of global warming for the period between 1972 and 2000.  
The increase of 25% CO2 expected by the end of the century therefore corresponds to an increase of 0.6°C in the world temperature – an amount somewhat greater than the climatic variation of recent centuries. – John Sawyer, 1972
The mainstream news media at the time exaggerated the warnings of the minority who expected imminent cooling. For example, in 1975, Newsweek magazine published a story that warned of "ominous signs that the Earth's weather patterns have begun to change."  The article continued by stating that evidence of global cooling was so strong that meteorologists were having "a hard time keeping up with it."  On 23 October 2006, Newsweek issued an update stating that it had been "spectacularly wrong about the near-term future". 
In the first two "Reports for the Club of Rome" in 1972  and 1974,  the anthropogenic climate changes by CO
2 increase as well as by waste heat were mentioned. About the latter John Holdren wrote in a study  cited in the 1st report, “… that global thermal pollution is hardly our most immediate environmental threat. It could prove to be the most inexorable, however, if we are fortunate enough to evade all the rest.” Simple global-scale estimates  that recently have been actualized  and confirmed by more refined model calculations   show noticeable contributions from waste heat to global warming after the year 2100, if its growth rates are not strongly reduced (below the averaged 2% p.a. which occurred since 1973).
Evidence for warming accumulated. By 1975, Manabe and Wetherald had developed a three-dimensional Global climate model that gave a roughly accurate representation of the current climate. Doubling CO
2 in the model's atmosphere gave a roughly 2 °C rise in global temperature.  Several other kinds of computer models gave similar results: it was impossible to make a model that gave something resembling the actual climate and not have the temperature rise when the CO
2 concentration was increased.
The 1979 World Climate Conference (12 to 23 February) of the World Meteorological Organization concluded "it appears plausible that an increased amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere can contribute to a gradual warming of the lower atmosphere, especially at higher latitudes. It is possible that some effects on a regional and global scale may be detectable before the end of this century and become significant before the middle of the next century." 
In July 1979 the United States National Research Council published a report,  concluding (in part):
When it is assumed that the CO
2 content of the atmosphere is doubled and statistical thermal equilibrium is achieved, the more realistic of the modeling efforts predict a global surface warming of between 2°C and 3.5°C, with greater increases at high latitudes. … we have tried but have been unable to find any overlooked or underestimated physical effects that could reduce the currently estimated global warmings due to a doubling of atmospheric CO
2 to negligible proportions or reverse them altogether.
By the early 1980s, the slight cooling trend from 1945 to 1975 had stopped. Aerosol pollution had decreased in many areas due to environmental legislation and changes in fuel use, and it became clear that the cooling effect from aerosols was not going to increase substantially while carbon dioxide levels were progressively increasing.
Hansen and others published the 1981 study Climate impact of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide, and noted:
It is shown that the anthropogenic carbon dioxide warming should emerge from the noise level of natural climate variability by the end of the century, and there is a high probability of warming in the 1980s. Potential effects on climate in the 21st century include the creation of drought-prone regions in North America and central Asia as part of a shifting of climatic zones, erosion of the West Antarctic ice sheet with a consequent worldwide rise in sea level, and opening of the fabled Northwest Passage. 
In 1982, Greenland ice cores drilled by Hans Oeschger, Willi Dansgaard, and collaborators revealed dramatic temperature oscillations in the space of a century in the distant past.  The most prominent of the changes in their record corresponded to the violent Younger Dryas climate oscillation seen in shifts in types of pollen in lake beds all over Europe. Evidently drastic climate changes were possible within a human lifetime.
In 1985 a joint UNEP/WMO/ICSU Conference on the "Assessment of the Role of Carbon Dioxide and Other Greenhouse Gases in Climate Variations and Associated Impacts" concluded that greenhouse gases "are expected" to cause significant warming in the next century and that some warming is inevitable. 
Meanwhile, ice cores drilled by a Franco-Soviet team at the Vostok Station in Antarctica showed that CO
2 and temperature had gone up and down together in wide swings through past ice ages. This confirmed the CO
2 -temperature relationship in a manner entirely independent of computer climate models, strongly reinforcing the emerging scientific consensus. The findings also pointed to powerful biological and geochemical feedbacks. 
In June 1988, James E. Hansen made one of the first assessments that human-caused warming had already measurably affected global climate.  Shortly after, a "World Conference on the Changing Atmosphere: Implications for Global Security" gathered hundreds of scientists and others in Toronto. They concluded that the changes in the atmosphere due to human pollution "represent a major threat to international security and are already having harmful consequences over many parts of the globe," and declared that by 2005 the world would be well-advised to push its emissions some 20% below the 1988 level. 
The 1980s saw important breakthroughs with regard to global environmental challenges. Ozone depletion was mitigated by the Vienna Convention (1985) and the Montreal Protocol (1987). Acid rain was mainly regulated on national and regional levels.
Colors indicate temperature anomalies (NASA/NOAA 20 January 2016).  In 1988 the WMO established the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change with the support of the UNEP. The IPCC continues its work through the present day, and issues a series of Assessment Reports and supplemental reports that describe the state of scientific understanding at the time each report is prepared. Scientific developments during this period are summarized about once every five to six years in the IPCC Assessment Reports which were published in 1990 (First Assessment Report), 1995 (Second Assessment Report), 2001 (Third Assessment Report), 2007 (Fourth Assessment Report), and 2013/2014 (Fifth Assessment Report). 
Since the 1990s, research on climate change has expanded and grown, linking many fields such as atmospheric sciences, numerical modeling, behavioral sciences, geology and economics, or security.
One of the prominent traits of the 20th century was the dramatic growth of technology. Organized research and practice of science led to advancement in the fields of communication, engineering, travel, medicine, and war.
- The number and types of home appliances increased dramatically due to advancements in technology, electricity availability, and increases in wealth and leisure time. Such basic appliances as washing machines, clothes dryers, furnaces, exercise machines, refrigerators, freezers, electric stoves, and vacuum cleaners all became popular from the 1920s through the 1950s. The microwave oven became popular during the 1980s and have become a standard in all homes by the 1990s. Radios were popularized as a form of entertainment during the 1920s, which extended to television during the 1950s. Cable and satellite television spread rapidly during the 1980s and 1990s. Personal computers began to enter the home during the 1970s–1980s as well. The age of the portable music player grew during the 1960s with the development of the transistor radio, 8-track and cassette tapes, which slowly began to replace record players These were in turn replaced by the CD during the late 1980s and 1990s. The proliferation of the Internet in the mid-to-late 1990s made digital distribution of music (mp3s) possible. VCRs were popularized in the 1970s, but by the end of the 20th century, DVD players were beginning to replace them, making the VHS obsolete by the end of the first decade of the 21st century.
- The first airplane was flown in 1903. With the engineering of the faster jet engine in the 1940s, mass air travel became commercially viable.
- The assembly line made mass production of the automobile viable. By the end of the 20th century, billions of people had automobiles for personal transportation. The combination of the automobile, motor boats and air travel allowed for unprecedented personal mobility. In western nations, motor vehicle accidents became the greatest cause of death for young people. However, expansion of divided highways reduced the death rate.
- The triode tube, transistor and integrated circuit successively revolutionized electronics and computers, leading to the proliferation of the personal computer in the 1980s and cell phones and the public-use Internet in the 1990s.
- New materials, most notably stainless steel, Velcro, silicone, teflon, and plastics such as polystyrene, PVC, polyethylene, and nylon came into widespread use for many various applications. These materials typically have tremendous performance gains in strength, temperature, chemical resistance, or mechanical properties over those known prior to the 20th century. became an inexpensive metal and became second only to iron in use. materials were discovered, and methods of production and purification developed for use in electronic devices. Silicon became one of the purest substances ever produced.
- Thousands of chemicals were developed for industrial processing and home use.
The 20th century saw mathematics become a major profession. As in most areas of study, the explosion of knowledge in the scientific age has led to specialization: by the end of the century there were hundreds of specialized areas in mathematics and the Mathematics Subject Classification was dozens of pages long.  Every year, thousands of new Ph.D.s in mathematics were awarded, and jobs were available in both teaching and industry. More and more mathematical journals were published and, by the end of the century, the development of the World Wide Web led to online publishing. Mathematical collaborations of unprecedented size and scope took place. An example is the classification of finite simple groups (also called the "enormous theorem"), whose proof between 1955 and 1983 required 500-odd journal articles by about 100 authors, and filling tens of thousands of pages.
In a 1900 speech to the International Congress of Mathematicians, David Hilbert set out a list of 23 unsolved problems in mathematics. These problems, spanning many areas of mathematics, formed a central focus for much of 20th-century mathematics. Today, 10 have been solved, 7 are partially solved, and 2 are still open. The remaining 4 are too loosely formulated to be stated as solved or not.
In 1929 and 1930, it was proved the truth or falsity of all statements formulated about the natural numbers plus one of addition and multiplication, was decidable, i.e. could be determined by some algorithm. In 1931, Kurt Gödel found that this was not the case for the natural numbers plus both addition and multiplication this system, known as Peano arithmetic, was in fact incompletable. (Peano arithmetic is adequate for a good deal of number theory, including the notion of prime number.) A consequence of Gödel's two incompleteness theorems is that in any mathematical system that includes Peano arithmetic (including all of analysis and geometry), truth necessarily outruns proof, i.e. there are true statements that cannot be proved within the system. Hence mathematics cannot be reduced to mathematical logic, and David Hilbert's dream of making all of mathematics complete and consistent needed to be reformulated.
In 1963, Paul Cohen proved that the continuum hypothesis is independent of (could neither be proved nor disproved from) the standard axioms of set theory. In 1976, Wolfgang Haken and Kenneth Appel used a computer to prove the four color theorem. Andrew Wiles, building on the work of others, proved Fermat's Last Theorem in 1995. In 1998 Thomas Callister Hales proved the Kepler conjecture.
Differential geometry came into its own when Albert Einstein used it in general relativity. Entirely new areas of mathematics such as mathematical logic, topology, and John von Neumann's game theory changed the kinds of questions that could be answered by mathematical methods. All kinds of structures were abstracted using axioms and given names like metric spaces, topological spaces etc. As mathematicians do, the concept of an abstract structure was itself abstracted and led to category theory. Grothendieck and Serre recast algebraic geometry using sheaf theory. Large advances were made in the qualitative study of dynamical systems that Poincaré had begun in the 1890s. Measure theory was developed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Applications of measures include the Lebesgue integral, Kolmogorov's axiomatisation of probability theory, and ergodic theory. Knot theory greatly expanded. Quantum mechanics led to the development of functional analysis. Other new areas include Laurent Schwartz's distribution theory, fixed point theory, singularity theory and René Thom's catastrophe theory, model theory, and Mandelbrot's fractals. Lie theory with its Lie groups and Lie algebras became one of the major areas of study.
Non-standard analysis, introduced by Abraham Robinson, rehabilitated the infinitesimal approach to calculus, which had fallen into disrepute in favour of the theory of limits, by extending the field of real numbers to the Hyperreal numbers which include infinitesimal and infinite quantities. An even larger number system, the surreal numbers were discovered by John Horton Conway in connection with combinatorial games.
The development and continual improvement of computers, at first mechanical analog machines and then digital electronic machines, allowed industry to deal with larger and larger amounts of data to facilitate mass production and distribution and communication, and new areas of mathematics were developed to deal with this: Alan Turing's computability theory complexity theory Derrick Henry Lehmer's use of ENIAC to further number theory and the Lucas-Lehmer test Rózsa Péter's recursive function theory Claude Shannon's information theory signal processing data analysis optimization and other areas of operations research. In the preceding centuries much mathematical focus was on calculus and continuous functions, but the rise of computing and communication networks led to an increasing importance of discrete concepts and the expansion of combinatorics including graph theory. The speed and data processing abilities of computers also enabled the handling of mathematical problems that were too time-consuming to deal with by pencil and paper calculations, leading to areas such as numerical analysis and symbolic computation. Some of the most important methods and algorithms of the 20th century are: the simplex algorithm, the fast Fourier transform, error-correcting codes, the Kalman filter from control theory and the RSA algorithm of public-key cryptography.
- New areas of physics, like special relativity, general relativity, and quantum mechanics, were developed during the first half of the century. In the process, the internal structure of atoms came to be clearly understood, followed by the discovery of elementary particles.
- It was found that all the known forces can be traced to only four fundamental interactions. It was discovered further that two forces, electromagnetism and weak interaction, can be merged in the electroweak interaction, leaving only three different fundamental interactions.
- Discovery of nuclear reactions, in particular nuclear fusion, finally revealed the source of solar energy. was invented, and became a powerful technique for determining the age of prehistoric animals and plants as well as historical objects. was refined as a theory in 1954 by Fred Hoyle the theory was supported by astronomical evidence that showed chemical elements were created by nuclear fusion reactions within stars.
Quantum mechanics Edit
|From left to right, top row: Louis de Broglie (1892–1987) and Wolfgang Pauli (1900–58) second row: Erwin Schrödinger (1887–1961) and Werner Heisenberg (1901–76)|
In 1924, French quantum physicist Louis de Broglie published his thesis, in which he introduced a revolutionary theory of electron waves based on wave–particle duality. In his time, the wave and particle interpretations of light and matter were seen as being at odds with one another, but de Broglie suggested that these seemingly different characteristics were instead the same behavior observed from different perspectives — that particles can behave like waves, and waves (radiation) can behave like particles. Broglie's proposal offered an explanation of the restricted motion of electrons within the atom. The first publications of Broglie's idea of "matter waves" had drawn little attention from other physicists, but a copy of his doctoral thesis chanced to reach Einstein, whose response was enthusiastic. Einstein stressed the importance of Broglie's work both explicitly and by building further on it.
In 1925, Austrian-born physicist Wolfgang Pauli developed the Pauli exclusion principle, which states that no two electrons around a single nucleus in an atom can occupy the same quantum state simultaneously, as described by four quantum numbers. Pauli made major contributions to quantum mechanics and quantum field theory - he was awarded the 1945 Nobel Prize for Physics for his discovery of the Pauli exclusion principle - as well as solid-state physics, and he successfully hypothesized the existence of the neutrino. In addition to his original work, he wrote masterful syntheses of several areas of physical theory that are considered classics of scientific literature.
In 1926 at the age of 39, Austrian theoretical physicist Erwin Schrödinger produced the papers that gave the foundations of quantum wave mechanics. In those papers he described his partial differential equation that is the basic equation of quantum mechanics and bears the same relation to the mechanics of the atom as Newton's equations of motion bear to planetary astronomy. Adopting a proposal made by Louis de Broglie in 1924 that particles of matter have a dual nature and in some situations act like waves, Schrödinger introduced a theory describing the behaviour of such a system by a wave equation that is now known as the Schrödinger equation. The solutions to Schrödinger's equation, unlike the solutions to Newton's equations, are wave functions that can only be related to the probable occurrence of physical events. The readily visualized sequence of events of the planetary orbits of Newton is, in quantum mechanics, replaced by the more abstract notion of probability. (This aspect of the quantum theory made Schrödinger and several other physicists profoundly unhappy, and he devoted much of his later life to formulating philosophical objections to the generally accepted interpretation of the theory that he had done so much to create.)
German theoretical physicist Werner Heisenberg was one of the key creators of quantum mechanics. In 1925, Heisenberg discovered a way to formulate quantum mechanics in terms of matrices. For that discovery, he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics for 1932. In 1927 he published his uncertainty principle, upon which he built his philosophy and for which he is best known. Heisenberg was able to demonstrate that if you were studying an electron in an atom you could say where it was (the electron's location) or where it was going (the electron's velocity), but it was impossible to express both at the same time. He also made important contributions to the theories of the hydrodynamics of turbulent flows, the atomic nucleus, ferromagnetism, cosmic rays, and subatomic particles, and he was instrumental in planning the first West German nuclear reactor at Karlsruhe, together with a research reactor in Munich, in 1957. Considerable controversy surrounds his work on atomic research during World War II.
Radio became a new form of communication and entertainment. While most other forms of entertainment were expensive, the radio provided entertainment free of charge right in your own home. Radio became a vital link to information and had the power to influence people’s opinions in a way that had never been seen before.
Radio is a way news and information can reach the widest audience in the world. The invention of the radio changed that forever. In the early part of the 20th century, experiments with wireless radio were taking off, and soon news from around the world was reaching the homes of millions in an instant.
Technology in the 20th Century
Technology in the 20th Century
Margie R. Collins
HUM/300 The Global Village
October 13, 2014
Technology in the 20th Century
There can be no doubt that the twentieth century is one of the most remarkable unparalleled rate in mankind’s history for its technological advances and scientific discoveries, a rate that continues to this day. In fact, there were so many new gadgets invented and discoveries made in the last century that it’s difficult to pare the list down to just the three. However, here are the three technologies, that I have managed to narrow it down to those three innovations or technologies that have had the greatest influence on mankind: computer, internet, and radio. Internet
The internet has become a cultural, economic, and life changing technological phenomenon. Enough cannot be said about this incredible technology. However, the internet is not one single invention it is a simple idea that has evolved throughout the decades into something bigger than us all. While the internet was started fairly recently, today we are still at the tip of the iceberg of what this technology in all its many forms can help us achieve. So in essence the internet has already and will continue to revolutionize the world. Even as its beginnings were humble, no one could have predicted its amazing growth through the last several decades. The internet has brought us so much information and not only to the social and business elite, but to the entire world. Looking back, the essential idea of the internet is extremely basic however with several innovations, the internet has grown and evolved to where it is currently at today. Computer
It’s difficult to imagine our world today without computers that rendered the typewriter obsolete and made hand writing a thing of the past however, it took the internet to truly turn the computer into the monster it is today. Of course, the computer have been around since World War II, it was clunky.
Technology 20th Century - History
1900 : Max Planck discovers that atoms can emit energy only in discrete amounts or "quanta" and that the energy of light is proportional to the frequency
1900 : Mendel's theory is rediscovered
1900 : Ferdinand von Zeppelin builds the first rigid dirigible
1900 : Sigmund Freud's "The Interpretation of Dreams"
1901 : Guglielmo Marconi conducts the first transatlantic radio transmission (for the first time humans can send sounds to any place on Earth without any wires)
1901 : Karl Landsteiner discovers blood types
1902 : Willis Carrier invents the air conditioner
1902 : Clarence McClung discovers the sex chromosomes
1903 : Wilbur and Orville Wright fly the first airplane
1903 : Konstantin Tsiolkovsky's "The Exploration of Cosmic Space by Means of Reaction Devices"
1903 : Valdemar Poulsen invents an arc transmitter for radio broadcasts
1903 : William Bayliss and Ernest Starling discover that hormones are chemical messengers
1904 : John Fleming uses a diode to detect radio signals
1904 : Thomas Morgan discovers that chromosomes are responsible for inheritance of traits
1905 : Albert Einstein publishes "The Special Theory of Relativity"
1905 : Albert Einstein explains that the photoelectric effect is due to the fact that light is made of packets (later dubbed "photons") that behave like particles and its energy can change only by multiples of Planck's constant proportional to the light's frequency
1905 : Albert Einstein explains Brownian motion, and proves the existence of atoms
1905 : Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon develop the Intelligence Quotient test
1906 : William Bateson names a new discipline, "Genetics"
1906 : Robert von Lieben invents the triode, the "vacuum tube" (birth of electronics)
1907 : Lee DeForest creates the first electronic amplifier
1907 : Hermann Minkowski's four-dimensional spacetime
1907 : Leo Baekeland invents "bakelite", the first entirely synthetic plastic
1908 : Jacques Brandenberger invents cellophane
1908 : Ernst Zermelo founds axiomatic set theory
1909 : Paul Ehrlich discovers the first drug to cure syphilis
1909 : Charles Walcott discovers the Burgess Shale
1909 : Fritz Haber and Carl Bosch invent a process to produce the fertilizer ammonia
1911 : Heike Kamerlingh Onnes discovers superconductivity
1911 : General Electric introduces the first commercial refrigerator
1911 : Ernest Rutherford discovers that the atom is made of a nucleus and orbiting electrons, and mostly empty, a miniature solar system
1911 : Edward Thorndike founds "connectionism" to explain how the mind learns
1912 : Alfred Wegener discovers the continental drift
1912 : Joseph John Thomson invents the mass spectrometer
1912 : Max Wertheimer founds Gestalt Psychology
1912 : Alfred Wegener proposes that in ancient times the Earth only had one giant continent, Pangaea)
1913 : Ford installs the first assembly line
1913 : John Watson founds Behaviorism
1913 : Niels Bohr proves that electrons are permitted to occupy only some orbits around the nucleus of the atom, and the angular momentum of an electron is proportional to Planck's constant, and the energy of an atom changes in discrete quantities
Nov 1915 : Albert Einstein publishes "The Theory of General Relativity" and David Hilbert publishes "The Foundations of Physics", an axiomatic derivation of the same field equations
1916 : Karl Schwarzschild predicts the existence of black holes
1917 : Wolfgang Koehler studies problem solving in chimpanzees
1918 : Ronald Fisher founds Population Genetics
1918 : Hermann Weyl introduces the concept of gauge field to unify gravitation and electromagnetism
1919 : Theodor Kaluza adds a fifth dimension to General Relativity
1920 : David Hilbert sets out a program to axiomatize mathematics
1921 : Edward Sapir formulates the "principle of linguistic relativity" that the structure of a language affects the ways in which its speakers think
1923 : Jean Piaget formulates the theory that the mind grows just like the body grows
1923 : Kodak releases the 16-mm Cine-Kodak hand-held movie camera
1923 : Arthur Holly Compton performs an experiment (the "Compton Effect") demonstrating that light cannot be only a wave but must also be made of particles
1924 : Louis DeBroglie discovers that matter is both particles and waves, with frequency and wavelength being proportional to energy and momentum
1924 : Alexander Oparin formulates the theory of the "primordial soup" to explain the beginning of life
1924 : Hans Berger records electrical waves from the human brain, the first electroencephalograms
1924 : Otto Laporte formulates the law of conservation of parity
1925 : Satyendra Nath Bose and Albert Einstein discover a condensate that exhibits macroscopic quantum phenomena
1925 : Wolfgang Pauli discovers that some particles (the "fermions") can never occupy the same state at the same time
1926 : Erwin Schroedinger's equation of Quantum Mechanics
1926 : Waldo Semon improves polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
1926 : Oskar Klein proposes a fourth spatial dimension that is undetectable because it is the size of the Planck length
1926 : Films with synchronized voice and music are introduced (talking movies)
1926 : Robert Goddard launches the first liquid-fuel rocket
1926 : Max Born's probabilistic interpretation of the wave amplitudes in Schroedinger's equation.
1927 : First vaccines for tuberculosis and tetanus
1927 : Philo Farnsworth invents the television
1927 : Werner Heisenberg discovers the uncertainty principle and Niels Bohr formulates the principle of complementarity
1927 : Louis de Broglie discovers a "hidden-variables" interpretation of Quantum Mechanics
1927 : Fritz London introduces the first successful gauge theory (phase invariance of electromagnetism)
1928 : David Hilbert's Entscheidungsproblem
1928 : Fritz Pfleumer invents magnetic tape for audio recording
1928 : Alexander Fleming discovers penicillin
1928 : Umberto Nobile's dirigible flies over the North Pole
1928 : Warren Marrisson invents the electronic quartz clock
1929 : Edwin Hubble discovers that the universe is expanding
1930 : Karl Lashley discovers that functions are not localized but distributed around the brain
1930 : Paul Dirac proves that the vacuum is not empty
1930 : Wolfgang Pauli derives theoretically the existence of the neutrino, a particle that does not interact with ordinary matter
1930 : Clyde Tombaugh discovers a new planet in the Solar System, Pluto
1931 : Kurt Goedel's theorem of incompleteness
1931 : Georges Lemaitre proposes the theory of the big bang
1932 : Fredrick Bartlett formulates the theory of Reconstructive Memory
1932 : John VonNeumann's "Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics"
1932 : Gerhard Domagk's team at Bayer develops Prontosil
1932 : Carl David Anderson discovers the positron
1932 : James Chadwick discovers the neutron
1933 : Edwin Armstrong invents FM radio
1933 : Fritz Zwicky speculates that the universe must be full of "dark matter"
1933 : Otto Stern discovers that the (electrically neutral) neutron has a magnetic field, an ndication that it must have an internal structure
1933 : Ernst Ruska builds an electron microscope that exceeds the resolution attainable with an optical microscope
1934 : Fritz Zwicky describes supernovae, neutron stars and cosmic rays
1935 : Wallace Carothers invents nylon
1935 : Robert Watson-Watt builds the first RADAR
1935 : AEG introduces the first magnetic tape recorder
1935 : Albert Einstein, Boris Podolsky and Nathan Rosen discover an apparent paradox of Quantum Mechanics (the EPR paradox)
1935 : Schroedinger's cat, the most famous thought experiment of Quantum Mechanics, and the first use of the term "entanglement"
1935 : Arthur George Tansley introduces the concept of the "ecosystem"
1936 : Technetium, the first human-made element
1936 : Alan Turing's Universal Machine
1936 : Heinrich Focke flies the first helicopter
1937 : Chester Carlson invents the photocopier
1938 : Otto Hahn, Fritz Strassman and Lise Meitner demonstrate nuclear fission
Dec 1938 : Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann carry out the nuclear fission of uranium
1938 : Chester Carlson invents xerography
1939 : Niels Bohr and John Wheeler describe the mechanism of nuclear fission
1939 : Rene Dubos discovers the first commercial antibiotic, tyrothricin
1939 : Walter Schottky explains how the interface between a semiconductor and a metal works
1943 : Enrico Fermi achieves a nuclear reaction
1943 : Tommy Flowers and others build the Colossus, the world's first programmable digital electronic computer
1944 : Oswald Avery discovers that genes are made of DNA
1944 : Arthur Holmes explains continental drift
1945 : Howard Florey and Ernst Chain develop the first antibiotics
1945 : John Von Neumann designs a computer that holds its own instructions, the "stored-program architecture"
1945 : The first atomic bombs are exploded by the USA
1946 : Marcello Conversi, Ettore Pancini and Oreste Piccioni carry out the first experiment of high-energy physics
1946 : Willard Libby invents a method for dating organic materials by measuring their content of carbon-14, a radioactive isotope of carbon ("radiocarbon dating")
1947 : John Bardeen and William Shockley invent the transistor
1947 : Einstein coins the expression "spooky action at a distance" to describe entanglement
1947 : Edwin Land invents Polaroid, the first instant camera
1947 : Norbert Wiener's Cybernetics
1947 : Dennis Gabor invents the hologram
1948 : Claude Shannon's Theory of Information
1948 : Hendrik Casimir shows how the zero-point energy can be detected ("Casimir effect")
1948 : Georgiy Gamow predicts that the big bang would leave behind a cosmic microwave radiation
1949 : Donald Hebb's neural selectionism
1949 : John von Neumann computes pi to 2,037 decimal places using the ENIAC computer
1950 : James-Jerome Gibson argues that biological systems pick up information from the environment
1950 : "Human calculator" Shakuntala Devi tours Europe
1951 : Carl Djerassi and others invent the oral contraceptive pill
1951 : Linus Pauling predicts the secondary structure of proteins
1951 : William Wilson Morgan discovers the structure of the MilkyWay galaxy
1951 : David Bohm hypothesizes that Quantum Mechanics requires a fifth dimension
1951 : Electricity is generated by a nuclear reactor at Arco in Idaho
1951 : Fred Sanger sequences a protein, bovine insulin
1952 : Harold Urey and Stanley Miller recreate the conditions of early Earth in a laboratory and show how aminoacids may have formed
1952 : Alan Turing's theory of morphogenesis
1953 : Eugene Aserinsky discovers "rapid eye movement" (REM) sleep that corresponds with periods of dreaming
1953 : Clair Patterson dates the Earth to 4.5 billion years old
1953 : Conrad Waddington's epigenetics
1953 : Francis Crick and James Watson discover the double helix of the DNA
1953 : Taiichi Ohno invents "lean manufacturing" (or "just-in-time" manufacturing)
1953 : Jonas Salk develops the first polio vaccine
1953 : Roger Sperry studies the "split brain" and discovers that the two hemispheres are specialized in different tasks
1954 : Daryl Chapin, Gerald Pearson and Calvin Fuller at Bell Labs demonstrate the first practical solar cell
1954 : Chen Ning Yang and Robert Mills generalize Maxwell's electromagnetism
1954 : The Obninsk Nuclear Power Plant in the USSR became the first nuclear power plant to generate electricity for a power grid
1954 : Christian Anfinsen discovers that the three-dimensional structure of a protein depends solely on the sequence of amino acids
1954 : Bell Labs' Gerald Pearson, Calvin Fuller and Daryl Chapin build the first silicon solar cell
1954 : The first transistor radio ("Regency")
1955 : John McCarthy's Artificial intelligence
1955 : Niels Jerne proposes a natural-selection theory of antibody formation
1956 : Charles Ginsburg builds the first practical videotape recorder
1956 : The first flying car, the Aerocar, is certified in the USA
1956 : Chien-Shiung Wu, Chen Ning Yang and Tsung-Dao Lee prove the violation of parity
1957 : Frank Rosenblatt conceives the "Perceptron", the first artificial neural network
1957 : Albert Sabin develops the oral polio vaccine
1957 : The Soviet Union tests the R-7 Semyorka, the first intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM)
1957 : John Bardeen, Leon Neil Cooper, and John Schrieffer publish the first theory of superconductivity
1957 : Hugh Everett introduces an interpretation of Quantum Mechanics without uncertainties, the multiverse
1957 : Noam Chomsky's theory of grammar
1957 : the Soviet Union launches the first artificial satellite, the Sputnik, mostly designed by Sergei Korolev
1958 : Boeing introduces the long-distance jet
1958 : Jack Kilby invents the integrated circuit
1958 : Jim Backus invents the Fortran programming language, the first machine-independent language
1959 : Eveready (later renamed Energizer) introduces the alkaline battery
1959 : Michel Jouvet discovers that REM sleep is generated in the brain stem
1959 : Robert Noyce co-invents the integrated circuit
1959 : Min Chueh Chang invents in-vitro fertilization
1959 : John Kendrew and Max Perutz determine the three-dimensional structure of a protein
May 1960 : Theodore Maiman demonstrates the first working LASER
1960 : Wernher von Braun spearheads development of NASA's Mercury and Apollo space programs
1960 : The world's first commercially produced birth-control pill, Enovid-10
1961 : Charles Bachman develops the first database management system
1961 : Marshall Nirenberg and Heinrich Matthaei discover how the 4-letter genetic code gets translated into the 20-letter language of proteins
( 1961 : General Motors unveils "Unimate", the first industrial robot)
1961 : Fernando Corbato builds the first time-sharing system that allows users to remotely access a computer
1961 : Yuri Gagarin becomes the first astronaut
1961 : Marshall Nirenberg cracks the genetic code
1961 : Jacques Monod and Francois Jacob discover gene regulation
1961 : Sydney Brenner, Francois Jacob and Matthew Meselson determine the function of messenger RNA (mRNA)
1962 : Telstar, the first telecommunication satellite
1962 : Thomas Kuhn's theory of paradigm shifts
1962 : Texas Instruments introduces what will be come known as LED (Light-emitting diode) technology, invented by James Biard and Gary Pittman
1962 : The first Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) takes place with, among others, Frank Drake and Carl Sagan
1963 : Murray Gell-Mann's theory of quarks, Quantum Chromodynamics
1963 : The touch-tone phone
1963 : Douglas Engelbart builds the first "mouse"
1963 : Ivan Sutherland demonstrates "Sketchpad", the first program with a graphical user interface
1964 : American Airlines' SABRE reservation system is the first online transaction processing
1964 : June Almeida is the first scientist to identify a coronavirus
1964 : Following an earthquake in Alaska, the second strongest on record, George Plafker's theory that earthquake are caused by plate tectonics is widely accepted
1964 : John Young proposes a "selectionist" theory of the brain (learning is the result of the elimination of neural connections)
1964 : John Bell solves the EPR paradox and proves that there are no hidden variables
1964 : IBM introduces the first "operating system" for computers
1964 : Japan inaugurates the first "bullet train", the Shinkansen
1964 : Peter Higgs proves the existence of a mass-giving boson
1965 : DEC introduces the first mini-computer based on integrated circuits, the PDP-8
1965 : Robert Holley discovers transfer RNA
1965 : Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson discover the cosmic microwave background radiation
1966 : Hironari Miyazawa proposes a supersymmetry relating mesons and baryons
1966 : Rene Thom formulates catastrophe theory
1967 : Jack Kilby develops the first hand-held calculator
1967 : The first pulsar is observed
1967 : Christian Barnard performs the first human heart transplant
1967 : Ilya Prigogine shows that biological systems are dissipative systems which self-organize far from equilibrium
1968 : Barclays Bank installs networked "automated teller machines" or ATMs
1968 : Andries van Dam introduces the "Undo" command
1968 : Gabriele Veneziano discovers that a string can describe the interaction of strongly interacting particles
1968 : MIT scientists and engineers found Scientists and Engineers for Social and Political Action (SESPA)
1969 : The Arpanet (Internet) is inaugurated
1969 : Neil Armstrong is the first human to walk on the Moon
1969 : Jonathan Beckwith, James Shapiro and Lawrence Eron isolate a gene
1969 : The Concorde, a supersonic passenger airplane
1969 : Paul MacLean proposes the theory of the "triune brain"
1969 : Yoichiro Nambu introduces string theory
1970 : The first practical optical fiber is developed by glass maker Corning Glass Works
1970 : Koryo Miura conceives the Miura-ori fold in origami
1970 : Michael Gazzaniga and Joseph Ledoux discover the left-brain "interpreter"
1971 : Ananda Chakrabart develops a genetically engineered organism, a new species of Pseudomonas bacteria
1971 : Vera Rubin discovers anomalies in the rotation of galaxies that show the existence of "dark matter"
1971 : Sony introduces the U-matic, first commercial videocassette recorder (VCR)
1971 : Ted Hoff and Federico Faggin build the first universal micro-processor
1971 : Pierre Ramond introduces the first supersymmetric theory
1972 : Ray Tomlinson invents e-mail
1972 : Christian Anfinsen postulates that a protein's amino acid sequence must determine its structure
1972 : Jacob Bekenstein discovers that a black hole should store a huge amount of entropy
1972 : Robert Moore and Irving Zucker discover that the suprachiasmatic nuclei is the site of the circadian biologic clock
1972 : Hamilton Watch introduces the Hamilton Pulsar P1, the first electronic digital watch and the first using a digital LED display
1972 : Raymond Damadian builds the world's first magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machine
1972 : Godfrey Hounsfield and Allan Cormack invent computed tomography scanning or CAT-scanning
1972 : Theodore Friedmann and Richard Roblin's "Gene Therapy for Human Genetic Disease?"
1972 : Paul Berg's team synthesizes the first recombinant DNA molecule
1972 : The Global Positioning System (GPS) is launched
1972 : Magnavox introduces the first videogame console, "Odyssey"
1973 : Sharp develops the LCD technology for display monitors
1973 : Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer create the first recombinant DNA organism (the birth of "biotechnology")
1973 : Brandon Carter introduces the "anthropic principle" in cosmology
1973 : Martin Cooper invents the cellular telephone
1973 : Jean-Pierre Changeux discovers neural Darwinism
1973 : Simon Morris proves that the Burgess Shale is evidence of an explosion of species during the Cambrian period
1974 : Ed Roberts invents the first personal computer, the Altair 8800
1974 : Donald Johanson discovers a skeleton that is hailed as the missing link between ape and human, "Lucy"
1974 : Sam Hurst invents the touch-screen user interface
1974 : Stephen Hawking discovers the radiation of black holes
1974 : John Schwarz suggests that string theory is a theory of gravity (superstring theory)
1974 : Howard Georgi and Sheldon Glashow propose a grand unification theory (GUT) to unify weak, strong and electromagnetic forces
1975 : Benoit Mandelbrot presents a theory of "fractals"
1975 : Wilson Edward Osborne founds Sociobiology
1976 : Martin Hellman, Ralph Merkle and Whitfield Diffie describe the concept of public-key cryptography
1976 : Julian Jaynes introduces the theory of the "bicameral mind"
1976 : Sergio Ferrara, Daniel Freedman, and Peter van Nieuwenhuizen introduce the first supersymmetry that included gravity.
1977 : The Voyager unmanned probes are launched to explore the solar system and beyond
1977 : Fritz-Karl Winkler and others produce the first crystallographic X-ray structure of a virus, the tomato bushy stunt virus
1977 : The World Health Organization (WHO) announces the eradication of smallpox
1977 : Frederick Sanger invents a method for rapid DNA sequencing and publishes the first full DNA genome of a living being
1978 : Louise Brown is born through Robert Edwards' technique of in-vitro fertilization, the first "test-tube baby"
1979 : Smallpox is eradicated
1979 : Alan Guth's inflationary model of the universe
1980 : Douglas Hofstadter publishes "Godel Escher Bach"
1980 : Luis and Walter Alvarez proposed, based on iridium deposits, that the dinosaurs were wiped out by an asteroid impact
1980 : Humberto Maturana publishes "Autopoiesis and Cognition"
1980 : Ilya Prigogine publishes "From Being to Becoming"
1980 : John Goodenough invents the lithium-ion battery
1981 : Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer build the scanning tunneling microscope, an instrument for "seeing" the atomic level
1981 : Martin Evans identifies embryonic stem cells (in mice)
1981 : Sony introduces the video camera Betacam, the first camcorder
1982 : Richard Feynman proposes a universal quantum simulator that can simulate any physical object
1982 : Andrei Linde's chaotic inflationary multiverse
1982 : Sony and Philips introduce the CD (compact disc)
1983 : Kary Banks Mullis develops the polymerase chain reaction for DNA sequencing
1984 : Psion introduces the first personal digital assistant
1984 : Barry Marshall and Robin Warren show that ulcers are caused by bacteria
1985 : David Deutsch's universal quantum computer
1985 : Akira Yoshino creates the first commercially-viable lithium-ion battery
1984 : Fujio Masuoka invents flash memory
1984 : Michael Green and John Schwarz demonstrate that superstring theory can only work in ten dimensions
1986 : The Soviet Union launches the permanent space station MIR
1986 : Ernst Dickmanns demonstrates the self-driving car "VaMoRs"
1986 : Karl Muller and Johannes Bednorz discover the first high-temperature superconductor
1986 : Abhay Ashtekar founds quantum loop theory
1987 : Applied Biosystems introduces the first fully automated sequencing machine
1989 : Magellan Corporation introduces the first hand-held GPS receiver
1989 : Christof Koch discovers that at, any given moment, very large number of neurons oscillate in synchrony and one pattern is amplified into a dominant 40 Hz oscillation
1990 : The Hubble space telescope is launched
1990 : The first Internet search engine, "Archie"
1990 : Tim Berners-Lee invents the HyperText Markup Language "HTML" and demonstrates the World-Wide Web
1990 : Dycam introduces the world's first digital camera
1990 : William French Anderson performs the first procedure of gene therapy
1991 : Karlheinz Brandenburg at Bell Labs invents the mp3 format
1992 : Calgene creates the "Flavr Savr" tomato, the first genetically-engineered food to be sold in stores
1992 : The first text (SMS) message is sent from a phone
1993 : Gerard 't Hooft develops the holographic theory
1993 : William Wootters and others discover how to achieve quantum teleportation using entanglement
1994 : Andrew Wiles works out the first successful proof of Fermat's last theorem
1995 : The MP3 standard is introduced for digital video
1995 : Ted Jacobson derives Einstein's equation of general relativity from purely thermodynamic concepts
1995 : The top quark, the last missing quark, is finally observed at Fermilab
1995 : Edward Witten introduces M-Theory
1995 : Eric Cornell and Carl Wieman produce the first Bose-Einstein condensate
1995 : Ward Cunningham creates WikiWikiWeb, the first "wiki"
1995 : Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz discover an exoplanet, "51 Pegasi b"
1995 : The Ebola virus kills entire villages in Congo (Zaire)
1995 : Sony and Philips introduce the DVD in Japan
1996 : Nokia introduces the first "smartphone"
1996 : Giacomo Rizzolatti discovers that the brain uses "mirror" neurons to represent what others are doing
1997 : Ian Wilmut clones the first mammal, the sheep Dolly
1997 : Dennis Lo detects fetal DNA in the plasma of a pregnant mother (prenatal genetic diagnosis)
1997 : John Dick and Dominique Bonnet discover that leukemia is caused by tumor stem cells
1997 : The Mars Pathfinder is the first rover robot on Mars
1997 : Toyota begins selling a hybrid car, the Prius
1998 : Saul Perlmutter, Brian Schmidt and Adam Riess discover that the expansion of the universe is accelerating (dark energy)
1998 : James Thomson and John Gearhart isolate human embryonic stem cells and grow them in the lab
1998 : Juan Maldacena's model of the holographic universe
1998 : James Thomson and others grow human embryonic stem cells in cell culture
1998 : The first handheld devices to read ebooks
1998 : Jeff Kimble and others teleport a photon for about one meter
1998 : George Mitchell employs hydraulic fracturing or "fracking" to extract natural gas from the shale rock of Texas' Barnett Shale
1999 : The first social networking platform, Friendster, is launched by Jonathan Abrams
1999 : John Pendry discovers a way to create metamaterials
2003 : The Human Genome Project is completed, having identified all the genes in human DNA
2003 : A NASA probe finds that one side of the universe is hotter than the other
2003 : Andrea Ghez and Reinhard Genzel discover that a massive black hole lies in the center of our galaxy
2004 : Andrei Geim and Konstantin Novosolev, isolate individual graphene planes
2005 : Rice is the first cereal crop to be sequenced (by the International Rice Genome Sequencing Project)
2006 : Paul Rothemund invents DNA origami
2006 : James Thomson's group and Shinya Yamanaka's group discover a way of converting skin cells into embryonic stem cells
2007 : Knome introduces the first commercially available human genome sequencing
2010 : Craig Venter and Hamilton Smith reprogram a bacterium's DNA
2010 : Geron carries out the first stem-cell therapy on a human
2010 : Autonomous vehicles drive 13,000 km from Italy to China, the first intercontinental trip ever by autonomous vehicles
2012 : Markus Covert simulates an entire living organism (Mycoplasma genitalium) in software
2012 : Jennifer Doudna's group invents the CRISPR-cas9 system for gene editing
2012 : Kiyotaka Miura at Kyoto University invents quartz glass memories that can hold data for millions of years
2012 : PAL-V builds a flying car
2014 : Floyd Romesberg chemically synthesizes two artificial nucleotides and inserts them into a bacteria thus creating a new genetic alphabet
2014 : Robert Lanza generates human stem cells from adults
2015 : Junjiu Huang genetically modifies human embryos
2015 : Nathan Guisinger's team synthesizes borophenes
2016 : Gravitational waves are observed for the first time, 100 years after they were discovered by Einstein
Dec 2020 : Britain approves BioNTech's covid vaccine, developed in Germany by Ugur Sahin and Ozlem Tureci, the first RNA vaccine for use on humans and the first vaccine ever developed in less than 10 months See also A Timeline of Neuroscience
A note on the past, the present and the future
When "futurists" talk about "accelerating progress", they are usually not talking about new ideas and inventions, but about the refinement of old ideas and inventions, particularly in electronics, a fact that is due mainly to progress in manufacturing (miniaturization, customization, integration, etc). They mainly count a new product in an existing category as progress, and even the new releases of a product as progress.
They don't count (and discount) the many examples of fields in which progress has fallen short: travel speed has actually decreased with the decommissioning of the Concorde in 2003 energy is still mostly provided by oil, followed by nuclear the agricultural revolution (which increased grain yields by 126% between 1950 and 1980) has stalled life expectancy in most developed countries is no longer increasing incomes have been stagnating for decades in the West and are actually falling in parts of Europe health care is more likely to deteriorate than improve the Great Recession of 2008 was the biggest in 80 years the space program of the 1960s (that took us to the Moon in 1969 but nowhere else) has been largely abandoned and the Space Shuttle retired the flying car debuted in 1956 but we still drive regular cars smartphone batteries last about one day whereas traditional phones were working 24/7 and voice quality has deteriorated dramatically with smartphones not to mention customer support that is rapidly dwindling towards a simple "good luck, buyer" on october 21 of 2011 Google's news aggreator displayed "Internal Server Error" as the main news of the day etc. Even population, that was supposed to increase exponentially forever, has begun to decline in some countries. And of course the attention span of people, especially the abovesaid futurists (whom i find stunningly ignorant about history, economics and even technology and science), has been declining exponentially, something that qualifies as "progress" only in the universe of insects.
The unquestionable progress has been in manufacturing techniques. In particular, the rate of miniaturization has been truly stunning in the last century. The recent "miracles" of technology were not due to conceptual breathroughts (a smartphone was simply a bad camera plus a bad phone plus a bad computer plus a bad camcorder) but were due to progress in manufacturing techniques, a progress that started when transistors were invented. This progress accounts for the ability to integrate more functions in smaller devices. Whether this constitutes "invention/discovery" is debatable. In my opinion it belongs to a different timeline.
Linda Hall Library's first major purchase was the library collection of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1946. This acquisition provided a strong foundation for the Library's collections including journals, rare books, and the exchange program that supports the interchange of material with foreign academies and societies.
In 1995, the Engineering Societies Library (ESL) was transferred to the Library, an acquisition equal in significance to the Academy collection, and greater in terms of the number of volumes received. The ESL collection added depth to both the journal and monograph collections, especially with material published before 1950. Also included are historical standards and specifications, papers from society meetings, and pamphlets.
Additional collections acquired in the last few decades incude aerospace materials, parachute history, and natural gas materials, as well as others. Some of these collections are not cataloged. Research Specialists can assist with their use.
Technology in the 20th Century Paper
There are many notable advances made in technology that took place during the twentieth century. The world gradually moved from the industrial age into the technology age during this era. Once technology took hold nothing could hold back the flood of its advancement and the innovation that grew from it. Of all of the important advancements three standouts that are intimately connected are the inventions of the radio, computers, and the internet. The radio could be said as the beginning of the information age and the sharing of information worldwide.
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The radio actually made it possible for the first time in humanity’s history for an audience to hear a person from many miles away. Before the television the radio was a way of gathering of people and families to share news and the storytelling that would have once perhaps been told around a communal fire. According to Kinsey, between the years of 1909 and 1927 Britain, America, Australia, South Africa, and the Netherlands were all broadcasting wirelessly through the radio (Kinsey, 2005). During this time radio broadcasts were all commercial, but that soon gave way to other kinds of broadcasts including music.
Another huge advancement created in the twentieth century is the computer. The computers that are enjoyed today hardly resemble the huge calculating machines that were created around the time of the second world war. In 1944 the very first electronic- mechanical computer called MARK 1 was created at Harvard. This machine was a massive calculator that was fifty one feet wide and eight feet tall (Chee, 1997). The beginning of the smaller computers that we know today started in 1959 when Honeywell developed the first computers that used transistors. These were followed by IBM who used integrated circuits. The very first personal computers were built in the 1970’s with the computers that are recognizable today starting in 1974 with the first Apple PC being created in 1977. Computer technology continues to grow and expand creating increasingly smaller and faster machines to keep up with today’s fast paced life. The small seven or eight inch portable ipad has little resemblance to its humongous forefather the MARK 1.
The internet’s history is tied to the government and the Cold War in the 1960’s. The over 300,000 networks that cover much of the world actually saw its beginning as a system that was created to use satellites and radio transmissions to communicate for the military. The problem with the system was that there were not any networks to share the information. A system that solved this problem was created in 1982 and by 1993 the World Wide Web was popularized by nuclear physists that needed to communicate with each other (Chee, 1997). By the end of the 1980’s a number of mostly professional people were utilizing the Internet and email, but by the 1990’s the internet would see massive growth. By the end of 1999 the number of people using the internet was estimated to be 248 million (Cohen, 2011). The world has been made a smaller place because of the internet. People all around the earth can see events that are happening real time in places they may never physically get to visit. The many challenges that persist for humanity are made visible on a daily basis which in turn can be a way for people to see one another as extensions of themselves instead of enemies to be conquered.
In conclusion, the social changes that arose from two world wars fertilized a society that was eager to learn and explore our world. While the society of the twentieth century struggled to gain realistic views of humanity, technological advancements like the radio, computers, and the Internet helped to create a much smaller world. The technology that is taken for granted in today’s society had very humble beginnings in the twentieth century. That technology has helped to close the gap and erase some of the imaginary lines that have historically separated the world’s population. These innovations have helped to heal the collective scars of decades of war, proving to humanity that we are alike in more ways than we could ever imagine.
Chee, H. W. (1997, Mar 27). Brief look at the history of computers. New Straits Times. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/269127308?accountid=458
Cohen-Almagor, R. (2011). Internet History. International Journal of Technoethics (IJT), 2(2), 45-64. doi:10.4018/jte.2011040104Article
Technology in the 20th Century
There can be no doubt that the twentieth century is one of the most remarkable unparalleled rate in mankind’s history for its technological advances and scientific discoveries, a rate that continues to this day. In fact, there were so many new gadgets invented and discoveries made in the last century that it’s difficult to pare the list down to just the three. However, here are the three technologies, that I have managed to narrow it down to those three innovations or technologies that have had the greatest influence on mankind: computer, internet, and radio.
The internet has become a cultural, economic, and life changing technological phenomenon. Enough cannot be said about this incredible technology. However, the internet is not one single invention it is a simple idea that has evolved throughout the decades into something bigger than us all. While the internet was started fairly recently, today we are still at the tip of the iceberg of what this technology in all its many forms can help us achieve.
“ Very organized ,I enjoyed and Loved every bit of our professional interaction ”
So in essence the internet has already and will continue to revolutionize the world. Even as its beginnings were humble, no one could have predicted its amazing growth through the last several decades. The internet has brought us so much information and not only to the social and business elite, but to the entire world. Looking back, the essential idea of the internet is extremely basic however with several innovations, the internet has grown and evolved to where it is currently at today.
It’s difficult to imagine our world today without computers that rendered the typewriter obsolete and made hand writing a thing of the past however, it took the internet to truly turn the computer into the monster it is today. Of course, the computer have been around since World War II, it was clunky, massive, and an expensive thing that had all the calculating power of a brick. In 1976, when Steve Wozniak and Stephen Jobs introduced the first Apple computer, it took the world my storm and changed everything. Today, of course, they are everywhere and we have become so dependent upon them that many people almost feel naked without one. The computer allows information to be brought into our lives instantly and this information is received from distant countries in s bat of an eye. For some, they even provide the very means of maintaining a livelihood: we use them to keep track of our finances, write books, design logos, and sell real estate. It also gives anyone the ability to buy and sell almost anything imaginable, find and torment old school mates, watch the latest you-tube videos, and even find their perfect life partner, all for a few bucks a month.
Plus, they are rapidly replacing the stereo and television in their ability to entertain us with music, movies, and games. Life without a computer would makes it hard to understand how our ancestors did so well without it. Radio. Radio has transformed society three times, not to mention giving birth to the entire field of electronics. Perhaps no invention of modern times has delivered so much while initially promising so little. When radio arrived at the end of the 19th century, few thought that “wireless” communications, in which intangible signals could be sent through the air over long distances, would be competitive in a world dominated by the telegraph and telephone.
Few people today can appreciate the impact the advent of radio had on the late 19th and 20th century. Not only did it suddenly make it possible for a person to be heard from hundreds or even thousands of miles away without the use of a wire (quite an accomplishment in the first years of the century) but it was the center of family life through the end of the Second World War and into the doldrums of the fifties, when it was gradually replaced by that new-fangled contraption, the television. Today, it seems to only be useful in the car as a means of keeping the driver from falling asleep behind the wheel or as a tool of talk radio designed to rile the masses. In its day, however, it was every bit as vital to existence as the television, the computer, the microwave, and the cell phone are to us today. Conclusion
The pace of economic growth was very rapid in the years around the turn of the 20th century. Rapid technological change and high rates of investment in physical capital fueled the growth. Technological advances in different areas were combined to produce new products and new systems that had profound consequences for the ways in which people lived.
Top 10 Failures of Modern Science
There is no doubt that science and technology have improved the quality of modern life. Innovations like the personal computer, advances in HIV treatment and digital photography have become so accepted that it is difficult to imagine human existence without them. However, science is not infallible sometimes things go wrong. In some cases, scientific failures just mean a trip back to the drawing board. In others, loss of human life is the tragic result. Below, in no particular order, are listed 10 major failures of 20th and 21st century science and technology.
Chances are, if your computer runs a Windows-based operating system, the OS isn&rsquot Vista. If your computer does run Vista, odds are good that you wish it didn&rsquot. Vista&rsquos release on January 30, 2007 had been preceded by bad press and known compatibility issues with older PCs. Some reviewers claimed that Vista actually ran slower on PCs than XP, which had established itself as a stable, robust OP. The result &ndash consumers and enterprise users alike gave Vista the backs of their hands. Microsoft was forced to back off on its plans to sunset the popular XP while simultaneously fast-tracking its replacement, Windows 7, which was much better received.
While conventional nuclear energy is based on nuclear fission, or splitting atoms, Low Energy Nuclear Reaction, commonly called cold fusion, relies on fusing atomic nuclei to produce energy. The process, properly harnessed, could potentially produce limitless energy from sources as common as tap water. On March 23, 1989, Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischmann claimed to have perfected the process. However, after an initial flurry of excitement, cold fusion was largely dismissed as a hoax, ruining the careers of Fleischmann and Pons. Nonetheless, experiments persisted for decades. Some actually produced small amounts of tritium, a known by-product of cold fusion, but none demonstrated capacity for large-scale energy production.
What many people know about frontal lobotomies &ndash a widely accepted treatment for mental disorders through the late 1950s &ndash comes from the movie One Flew Over the Cuckoo&rsquos Nest. The first lobotomies were performed by Swiss physician Gottlieb Burkhardt in 1890. One patient committed suicide a second died less than a week after the operation. Those deaths halted the technique until it was revived and modified in the 1930s. Results from this modified procedure ranged from little visible behavior change to patients being reduced to a vegetative state. Rosemary Kennedy, JFK&rsquos sister, became incapacitated after receiving a lobotomy at age 23 and was institutionalized until her death in 2005.
One thing computers do better than nearly all humans is perform complex math computations. But in 1994, an entire line of Intel CPUs were discovered to have faulty math coprocessors. The faulty CPUs produced erroneous results for the ninth decimal place and beyond, potentially producing major errors for power users requiring absolute accuracy. Intel knew about the problem but figured that most consumers would never notice. Even after the flaw became public, Intel initially only replaced faulty chips for users who could &ldquoprove&rdquo that they were adversely impacted, but eventually provided replacements for anyone who asked &ndash free of charge.
Eight-track players were based on the premise that music lovers wanted the ability to hear favorite tunes over and over &ndash without fussing with flipping a cassette or a vinyl record. Before the iPod and endless repeat options on CD players became available, eight-track players allowed owners to insert a tape and listen until they grew bored, or until the tape broke. The main problem and a major reason for the eventual demise of the 8-track player was its tendency to change tracks in the middle of a song &ndash sometimes splitting crucial lyrics. Nonetheless, they enjoyed huge popularity during the 1960s and 1970s, and maintain a cult following even today.
The Hindenburg disaster of 1937 was only the latest in a series of hydrogen airship crashes that occurred during the first third of the 20th Century. The highly-flammable gas that fueled hydrogen airships was enclosed in numbered cells, with the balloon situated immediately above passenger and crew compartments. This contributed to the rapid spread of flames aboard the Hindenburg, which consumed the entire ship in less than one minute. A tragic irony of the disaster was that the Hindenburg was already obsolete. In 1935, a Pan American Airways M-130 China Clipper had flown 2,400 miles from San Francisco to Honolulu, more than sufficient range to make a trans-Atlantic crossing.
In 1968, Lee Iacocca, then president of Ford, decided to fight back against Japanese automakers in the small-car market. He demanded a car that weighed no more than 2,000 pounds and cost less than $2,000. The result was the Pinto, which went into production in 1970. The Pinto&rsquos fuel tank, positioned between the rear axle and bumper, exhibited serious flaws during low-speed testing. Ford ignored suggestions to move the fuel tank or reinforce it, figuring the additional cost of $11 per vehicle would exceed potential damage payouts. But when Ford&rsquos decision became public, the company was hit with multi-million dollar lawsuits, and its public image suffered for decades afterward.
Splitting the atom changed the course of World War II, appearing in the form of atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945. After the war, nations around the globe eagerly adopted nuclear power to provide what was then viewed as clean energy independent of politically unstable oil-producing regions. But the Chernobyl disaster of 1986 and the Fukushima meltdown of 2011 resulted in massive radiation-related illnesses and fatalities that have caused many countries to rethink their reliance on nuclear energy. In particular, Germany, which had halted the planned decommissioning of its nuclear power plants, completely shifted course in March 2011 in the face of massive protests.
George Jetson had one, but you won&rsquot be zooming around in a flying car anytime soon. Technology isn&rsquot the issue. The Airphibian, a 1946 modified plane, could fly at 120 mph, drive at 50 mph, and was certified by the Civil Aeronautics Administration, predecessor to the Federal Aviation Administration. The Aerocar, certified by the FAA in the 1960s, could cruise up to 120 mph. Lack of funding kept both inventions grounded. By contrast, Paul Moeller was sued in 2003 by the Securities and Exchange Commission, which alleged that he defrauded more than $5 million in stock sales from investors for a Skycar that never actually achieved unaided flight.
The yearning to venture beyond Earth has existed for centuries and persists to the present. In 2006, American space agency NASA launched plans to establish permanent laboratories on the Moon beginning in 2024. In 2012, a Dutch company began planning a venture to deposit four astronauts on Mars in April 2023, shipping new colonists to the Red Planet every two years, with none of the voyagers returning to Earth. Nonetheless, large-scale permanent space colonies remain beyond the capabilities of technology, not least because of the logistical challenges involved. Establishing permanent space colonies would require, at minimum, self-sustaining oxygen, food, water and medical resources, not to mention well-trained, hardy pioneers.
In conclusion, several failures of modern science are doomed to remain just that &ndash failures. However, some present-day failures only need for technology to catch up to be transformed into successes. Other innovations only need financing, a perceived need, or both, to become consumer ready. After all, many innovations taken for granted today began as wild ideas that spent months, years or even decades as failures before their true worth became known.
7. Home Security System
Marie Van Brittan Brown was a Black nurse and inventor in New York City who, together with her husband, Albert Brown, patented the first home security system in 1969. Brown got the idea for the security system because she and her husband worked long hours as an electronics technician, and she often found herself coming home to their apartment and being by herself late at night.
The system that Brown invented involved a sliding camera that could capture images through four different peepholes in her door, TV monitors to display the camera images and two-way microphones that allowed her to talk with anyone outside her door. There was also a remote to unlock the door from a distance and a button to alert police or security. This system paved the way for modern security systems, and has been cited in at least 32 patent applications that came after it.