Eric Drummond

Eric Drummond

Eric Drummond, the son of 15th Earl of Perth, was born in Fulford, North Yorkshire, in 1876. A diplomat, he was the first-secretary of the League of Nations (1919-33).

Drummond also served as ambassador in Rome (1933-39) and during the Second World War he was chief adviser on foreign publicity with the ministry of information. Drummond was also deputy leader of the Liberal Party (1947-1951).

Eric Drummond, 16th Earl of Perth, died in 1951.


Ladd Drummond Bio

Ladd Drummond is a married man. He is married to Anne Marie Smith a.k.a. Ree Drummond. His wife Ree is an American blogger, author, photographer, and TV star. Her blog, ‘The Pioneer Woman,’ shows the family’s life at the ranch.

The couple exchanged wedding vows on September 21, 1999. They met for the first time in a bar.

On their wedding day, he left his reception party to see Arizona State University beat Nebraska. Moreover, he gave Ree a diesel lawn mower as his wedding gift. They went to Australia for their honeymoon. She refers to Ladd as ‘Marlboro Man’.

From their marriage, the couple has four children, Alex Drummond (born on June 25, 1997), Paige Drummond (born on October 31, 1999), Bryce Drummond (born on September 17, 2002), and Todd Drummond (born in 2004). Alex is a graduate of Texas A&M University whereas Paige is a student at the University of Arkansas. They have decided to homeschool their two sons.


Eric Drummond and his Legacies

Authors: Macfadyen, D., Davies, M., Carr, M., Burley, J.

  • Argues that the present-day organizations of global governance are powerfully influenced by their early origins
  • Examines how the character of Eric Drummond influenced the establishment of the International Civil Service, the glue that holds the multilateral system together
  • Appeals to those who follow international affairs and twentieth century history academics and students of global organizations, international relations and global governance as well as those working, or wishing to work, in international organizations

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This book shows how the first institution of global governance was conceived and operated. It provides a new assessment of its architect, Eric Drummond, the first Secretary-General of the League of Nations, appointed a century ago. The authors conclude that he stands in the front rank of the 12 men who have occupied the post of Secretary-General of the League or its successor, the UN. Part 1 describes his character and leadership. His influence in shaping the International Civil Service, the ‘beating heart’ of the League, is the subject of Part 2, which also shows how the young staff he appointed responded with imagination and creativity to the political, economic and social problems that followed World War I. Part 3 shows the influence of these early origins on today’s global organizations and the large scale absorption of League policies, programmes, practices and staff into the UN and its Specialized Agencies.

David Macfadyen is Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh, UK, and has worked at a senior level in the World Health Organization (WHO). His research interests include the History of Medicine, which he has studied at the University of Glasgow, UK. Michael Davies is a former staff member of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the Inter-American Development Bank. He is the author of International Organizations: A Companion and The Administration of International Organizations.
Marilyn Carr has worked for the UN Economic Commission for Africa and the UN Development Fund for Women. She studied Development Economics at the University of Sussex, UK, and is the author of many books and articles on science, technology and women’s economic empowerment.
John Burley was an economic adviser to the Government of Uganda before working for the UN, including the UN Development Programme (UNDP). He was a Director at the UN Conference for Trade and Development and has contributed to a number of published studies of the UN system.


Career of a rancher

Ladd launched his career of a rancher soon after he graduated his college. His family inherited the Drummond estate located in Oklahoma – the estate is enormous as it spreads across 675 square miles, and belongs to Ladd, his brother Tim, and their father Chuck. The trio is also running their own company called Drummond Land and Cattle Company. The land they inherited and own together has made the Drummond family the 17th biggest landowner in the entire US – they are currently part of the Oklahoma Cattlemen’s Association.

A cowboy and a baby: A beautiful sight! @pwmercantile pic.twitter.com/z3rw4uEVy6

&mdash Ree Drummond – The Pioneer Woman (@thepioneerwoman) July 15, 2017

They also became businessmen after the opening of their “The Mercantile” restaurant and retain store in the second half of 2016. They first bought a 100 year-old building in Pawhuska in 2012, and renovated it throughout four years. The family has also appeared in the TV series “The Pioneer Woman” which started in 2011, and counts 15 seasons and 180 episodes all of which aired on the Food Network channel until 2016. While Ladd is said to be an excellent rancher, some of the other ranchers have strongly criticized his skills and his techniques as they do not match those which the other ranchers have been using.


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8 Facts About Don Drummond

Drummond was a musical genius, but he was also mentally troubled. Despite his brief life, the charismatic composer and trombonist is still regarded among the finest musicians Jamaica has ever produced. In fact, he was critical to the emergence and development of Jamaica’s popular music. Here are some facts about him:

  1. He was born on March 12, 1934, and taken to the famed Alpha Boys’ School on December 10, 1943 by his mother, who could no longer control his truancy. Two years later he was placed in the music band, and taught the most awkward of instruments – the trombone. He was able to master the instrument in almost no time.
  2. Upon his graduation from Alpha in 1950, Drummond was recommended to, and accepted by the famous Eric Deans All Stars band as trombonist, where he performed jazz music. He also had stints with The Sonny Bradshaw and Kenny Williams orchestras.
  3. As the music tastes of Jamaicans began leaning towards R&B, Drummond began performing ska. He soon joined fellow musicians Tommy McCook, Roland Alphonso, Johnny Moore, Jackie Mittoo, Lloyd Knibbs and others to form The Skatalites in 1963. Instrumental ska recordings, mainly reconstructed from original jazz pieces, were their speciality. Others were their own compositions, with Drummond, doing the bulk of the writing.
  4. Drummond had a long history of mental illness, and was hospitalised on a number of occasions. His condition worsened shortly after his last set of recordings with the Skatalites in 1964, and on New Year’s Day 1965, in a fit of jealous rage, he stabbed to death his girlfriend, Anita Mahfood, a rhumba dancer who performed under the name Marguerita, and then turned himself in to the police. He was tried, declared a criminal lunatic, and committed to the Bellevue Asylum Hospital.
  5. Drummond met his demise on May 6, 1969 under controversial circumstances at the Bellevue Hospital in east Kingston.
  6. His funeral on May 14, 1969 was postponed by members of his family after it was interrupted by a man calling for the post mortem results.
  7. Backed by The Skatalites, he recorded close to 200 selections, while writing or improvising on a vast amount. He left behind more than 100 improvised and original compositions.
  8. Drummond created some of the best musical arrangements in Jamaica’s popular music, like Eastern Standard Time, Music Is My Occupation, Schooling The Duke, Reloadand Looking Through The Window. Some of his most popular recordings with The Skatalites includeThe Guns Of Navarone,Man In The Street,Scrap Iron,Bridge View,President Kennedy, andAddis Ababa.

February 2016 marks the seventh anniversary of Reggae Month. It is also the fifth year of the Jamaica Reggae Industry Association’s (JaRIA) annual Reggae/Black History Month Grounation series, which this year features famed trombonist, the late Don Drummond. The Jamaica Music Museum’s ‘Ungle Malungu Man: Musings on Don Drummond’ series will be held on Sundays during this month (7th, 14th, 21st and 28th), with relevant presentations and musical performances from philosopher Dr Earl McKenzie, psychiatrist Prof Freddy Hickling, and cultural historian/political scientist Dr Clinton Hutton. The series will also feature poets Dr Kwame Dawes, Prof Lorna Goodison, Jerry Small, Raymond Mair and Poet Laureate Prof Mervyn Morris.


Book Review: Eric Drummond and his Legacies: The League of Nations and the Beginnings of Global Governance by David Macfadyen et al

In Eric Drummond and his Legacies: The League of Nations and the Beginnings of Global Governance, David Macfadyen et al show how the emergence of an international bureaucracy of civil servants and their role in the development of the League of Nations rested on Eric Drummond and the early internationalists around him. This book provides a much-needed historical and biographical perspective on the builders of modern multilateral institutions and demonstrates how their ideas continue to influence global governance today, writes Jan Lüdert.

Eric Drummond and his Legacies: The League of Nations and the Beginnings of Global Governance. David Macfadyen, Michael D.V. Davies, Marilyn Norah Carr and John Burley. Palgrave. 2019.

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Eric Drummond and his Legacies cogently shows that the emergence of an international bureaucracy of civil servants and their role in developing the League of Nations had everything to do with Eric Drummond and those early internationalists around him. The book, whose timely publication coincides with the League’s centenary, was authored by former international bureacrats David Macfadyen, Michael D.V. Davies, Marilyn Norah Carr and John Burley. The authors judiciously dissect early experiences in building global governance structures that define the functioning of the United Nations (UN) system today. They equally underscore how realpolitikal tensions inherent to multilateral cooperation are not new but hamper global governance initiatives 100 years on. The book, as such, will be of interest to academics, international civil servants, diplomats and practitioners alike.

While centrally concerned with assessing Drummond’s legacy as first Secretary-General (SG) of the League of Nations, the volume offers a historical perspective on a range of influential – yet overlooked – actors responsible for building the first wave of global institutions and their role in laying the foundations for a century of multilateralism. The book essentially delivers an agency-focused biographical assessment of how the League of Nations was ‘conceived and operated, and to appreciate the talents of its architects’, while stressing how these individuals came to shape the UN system not as a replacement, but as ‘a continuation of the earlier body’ (xxviii). Apart from underscoring the actions of early internationalists in building intergovernmental organisations (IGOs), their bureaucratic systems and rules of procedures, the authors stress how the values and moral convictions of these actors presented a counterweight to the pressures of power politics that, as is widely acknowledged, impeded an effective League in the interwar period and until it was succeeded by the UN at the end of World War Two.

The volume is divided into three parts and thirteen concise chapters. Part One contextualises Drummond’s life between 1876 to 1951. Chapter One presents fresh insight on Drummond’s upbringing in a Scottish aristocratic family, partly derived from new biographical sources which include family papers made accessible by Viscount Strathallan, great-grandson to Sir Eric. Apart from covering Drummond’s education, at which he excelled yet stopped short of a university degree, Part One offers a sense of how qualities Drummond later exhibited as Secretary-General were rooted in an ‘ever-present consciousness of family honour and personal reputation […] characterized by fierce loyalty to kin and causes’ (3). This section also illuminates that in 1916, after joining the Foreign Office (FO), Drummond championed multilateralism by proposing a ‘League of Peace’ in a paper fusing ‘British security, international organisation and legal norms into one grand synthetic view of the future international order’ (8). Three years on, Drummond bolstered his reputation at the FO as a delegate to the Paris Peace Conference where he advised US President Woodrow Wilson. Serving for fourteen years as the first SG of the League, Drummond returned to the diplomatic service as Italy’s Ambassador, ‘the most difficult British embassy posting after Berlin’ (62). After retiring from the FO at 63, Drummond took a seat in the House of Lords and spent his retirement in Sussex before succumbing to lung cancer on 15 December 1951.

Chapter Two emphasises Drummond’s inclusive leadership, based on extensive functional delegation that encouraged creativity and technical innovation, and which established ‘an esprit de corps that permeated the entire League’ (23). Drummond, in his farewell speech to the League’s Secretariat staff, put it this way:

The Secretary-General alone can do very little, indeed nothing. It is on you, each of you, that a great responsibility rests for the maintenance and consolidation of an organisation which is an essential organ of the League [carrying] with it the hopes of many millions of men and women, who see in the League the future salvation of the world (32).

Part One more generally clarifies, with subsequent chapters substantiating, that Drummond instituted principles for an international civil servant culture that still persist. These principles, as UNSGs Javier Pérez de Cuéllar and Dag Hammarskjöld later affirmed, embraced ‘an innate belief’ in universality and understood the Secretariat’s role as impartial mediator, standard bearer, moderator, guide, conciliator and arbiter (36-45).

Part Two draws attention to the creation of an enduring international civil service. It also provides brief portraits of other influential League staff (e.g. Jean Monnet (115) Inazo Nitobe (120) Erik Colban (196) Ludwik Rajchman (146)), whose varied impact contributed to building global governance foundations. Of interest here is that the League reflected Wilsonian policies, but a bureaucratic framework that was British. Moreover, this section draws attention to non-governmental actors’ attempts to base the organisation’s work on norms of gender as well as racial equality (73). Another crucial decision that Drummond took was that the League’s International Secretariat ‘must not be national ambassadors, but civil servants under the sole direction of a non-national Chancellor’ and aimed at evolving an international common purpose beyond state interests (74). The Secretariat’s operations extended these principles through a gradual accumulation of functions, via a process of ’defining by doing’, and in the attempt not to turn into a locus for politics but a body that served state members with objectivity and the provision of facts (80). Once established in Geneva, the League’s groundbreaking practices came to include in-country presence of technical staff organising financial rescue packages impartial international scrutiny supporting the development and implementation of international norms and bringing together experts and specialists to tackle international problems (105).

However principled the first decade of the League under Drummond unfolded, this section shows that these ideals were replaced with governments grinding particular axes and taking a firmer role in staffing decisions. Chapter Seven will be of particular interest to those studying the history of human rights by highlighting how League practices laid the groundwork for norms of human rights that were later inscribed in the UN (135-138). Chapter Eight focuses on Drummond’s commitment to a fully universal League despite this goal being ‘torpedoed by the realities of great power politics’ (159). It, for instance, draws attention to the US informal engagement over the League’s entire existence, steps towards reconciliation with Germany by securing German participation in the Secretariat and questions over the recognition and membership of Latin American states. The chapter furthermore highlights how the League came to embrace democratic values by ensuring that meetings were open to the public and the press, that members could raise any subject of concern and that a limited number of influential non-governmental organisations had access and could interact with official delegations to advocate for their causes.

Part Three assesses the League after Drummond’s tenure. Chapter Nine focuses on how Drummond’s successor Joseph Avenol betrayed ‘notions of neutrality and independence’ which, consequently, foreclosed the League revival at the end of World War Two (187). Despite this, the book shows that procedures first instituted by Drummond offered a blueprint for a new UN bureacracy (195). Indeed, while the UN’s institution builders ‘were at pains to distance themselves from the League’, the new intergovernmental organisation embraced a myriad of League values and ideas that, as Hammarskjöld later observed, needed replication (199).

Chapter Ten traces the foundations of 100 years of an unbroken international civil service to League of Nations’ rules of procedures and day-to-day management structures. Chapter Eleven discusses these continuities in the UN’s work, including humanitarian legacies, refugee protections and trusteeship functions with Chapter Twelve explaining their migration to UN agencies. Chapter Thirteen focuses on League staff that transitioned to the new IGO, compares the life of the international civil service then and now and examines Geneva’s evolution as a centre for multilateralism.

In the book’s epilogue, the authors reflect on how the League builders sowed the seeds for global governance today by attending to the parallel evolution of an international civil service. Here the authors offer a critical insight: IGOs are neither unitary organisations nor epiphenomenal agents acting solely on the behest of states rather, through a focus on Drummond and his contemporaries, they highlight that global governance institutions are heterogenous sites which are shaped by purposeful agents confronting political and structural constraints.

Eric Drummond and His Legacies provides a much-needed historical and biographical perspective on actors responsible for building multilateral organisations. Emphasis on Drummond and the early internationalists around him is central to the work, which goes the distance in assessing the relevance of the League of Nations. While such a focus is welcome, some sections tend to be overly descriptive at the expense of providing analytical takeaways. Despite this, the authors offer a novel perspective on the builders of modern multilateral institutions and how their ideas continue to influence global governance today. As such, the book gives a counterpoint to those who contend that multilateral institutions are ineffective or but a mere extension of powerful states. Eric Drummond and his Legacies, on the contrary, emphasises that multilateral institutions, although imperfect and frustrated by state interests, remain essential in tackling complex issues of global concern.

Note: This review gives the views of the author, and not the position of the LSE Review of Books blog, or of the London School of Economics.


Eric Drummond

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Michigan State University (MSU) is a public research university located in East Lansing, Michigan, United States and is the first land-grant institution that was created to serve as a model for future land-grant colleges in the country under the 1862 Morrill Act. Michigan State has been labeled one of the "Public Ivies," a publicly funded university considered as providing a quality of education comparable to those of the Ivy League. Following the introduction of the Morrill Act, the college became coeducational and expanded its curriculum beyond agriculture. Today, MSU is the ninth-largest university in the United States, with 47,800 students and 2,954 faculty members.

Novelis, Inc. engages in the production of aluminum rolled products. The firm also recycles aluminum. It supplies premium aluminum sheet and foil products to transportation, packaging, construction, industrial and consumer electronics markets throughout North America, Europe, Asia and South America. The company was founded on September 21 , 2004 and is headquartered in Atlanta, GA.

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Drummond has authored a variety of books, among them are: Black Heels to Tractor Wheels (2007), The Pioneer Woman Cooks: Recipes from an Accidental Country Girl (2009), The Pioneer Woman Cooks: Food from My Frontier (2012), The Pioneer Woman Cooks: A Year of Holidays: 140 Step-by-Step Recipes for Simple, Scrumptious Celebrations (2013) and The Pioneer Woman Cooks: The New Frontier: 112 Fantastic Favorites for Everyday Eating (2019).

In 2010 Drummond sold the film rights to her blog series-turned memoir, Black Heels to Tractor Wheels, and it was reported that Columbia Pictures was offering Reese Witherspoon the role to play Drummond. 


Multi-Millionaire Cowpoke Ladd Drummond, whose little “missus” is Ree Drummond (The Pioneer Woman), rakes in Taxpayer Dollars

by Debbie Coffey Copyright 2015 All Rights Reserved.

It has been 2 1/2 years since the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) last gave the public a tour of any BLM Long Term Holding Pastures, which are used to warehouse once wild horses that were rounded up by helicopters used by BLM contractors and permanently removed from America’s public lands. So much for the BLM’s claim of transparency.

Millions of readers follow Ree Drummond as she blogs about ranch life, her children, and her husband, whom she calls Marlboro Man. Photograph by Sylvia Plachy. (Source: The New Yorker)

Ladd Drumond, his brother Tim and their dad, Charles, are partners in Drummond Land and Cattle, which has a BLM contract for Long Term Holding pastures for our wild horses. Ladd is married to “The Pioneer Woman,” Ree Drummond, a Food Network cooking show host/blogger/photographer/cookbook author who writes folksy blogs about her life on their ranch in Oklahoma. Kind of like she’s a pioneer woman. Except in real life, Ree is wealthy and has both a house and a nice lodge on her ranch. (Nothing like the real pioneers, who had to trod across the plains in a covered wagon.)

In a 2013 article on Modern Farmer about America’s 100 Top Landowners (“The who’s who of modern American land moguls”) the Drummond family was listed as #17 (the 17th largest landowner in the U.S.), with �,000 acres.”

While some of this land may belong to other Drummond family members, Ladd and the little missus are getting by.

It was estimated that Ree’s blogsite income was about a million dollars or more per year just from display advertisement alone. She also makes dough from her Food Network cooking show, her cookbooks, her book, the movie option based on her book “Black Heels to Tractor Wheels,” based on her life (and persona) as “The Pioneer Woman.”

But Ree didn’t exactly fall off the back of a turnip truck. Her father, William Dale Smith, is an orthopedic surgeon and Ree grew up on the grounds of a country club in Bartlesville, OK. Ree went to the University of Southern California, lived in Los Angeles, before she met Ladd.

Besides all of the fingers Ree has in other pies, she and Ladd renovated a building for an office and a deli in Pawhuska, OK, near the ranch. It’s good to know Ladd won’t starve, especially since he claims he only makes $100,000 profit per year.

He seems too modest. From 1995-2012, Drummond Land and Cattle has received $1,573,102 in USDA farm subsides. $81,458 of the subsidies were since 2011, when Ree started her cooking show on the Food Network. Let’s just look at 2003-2012, when Drummond Land and Cattle has had the BLM contract to warehouse wild horses:

To be fair, Ladd did seem to try to save a bit of money by using his kids as ranch hands. Here’s a photo of Ladd and Ree’s little cowboy son in the saddle in the top photo. (He’s the short one in the brown jacket.) However, the BLM contract requires that the horses have “management by individuals who are knowledgeable and experienced about the behavior and nutritional requirements of equines…” (I assumed this meant adults, not 7 year olds. Or adolescents, who aren’t listed on the contract as key personnel.) Other people have noticed the child labor, too.

On Nov. 9, 2010 the BLM had a tour of the Drummond long term holding pasture, but onlyallowed credentialed media. However, at a blogging event held by Ree Drummond, bloggers got to see and take photos of the wild horses. And although you can no longer see many wild horses on any public lands, or even on the private property where the BLM warehouses them, Ree and Ladd and their friends can see the wild horses right out of the windows of their house. Any time they want to.

Ree has written stories about and posted photos of our wild horses on their property on “The Pioneer Woman” blog, uses photos of the wild horses at the top of her facebook page, and uses footage of the wild horses running on the promo for her cooking show. Could her use of these photos/video of our wild horses have made her image seem a little bit more “pioneer-like,” and, in part, contributed to her (and also Ladd’s) fame and personal financial gain?

It seems like Ladd Drummond wrote about the wild horses on Ree’s blog (after articles about Ladd Drummond were posted on this website). Boy, his writing is so good that it almost seems like a professional PR person wrote it!

Ladd, Tim and Charles Drummond, partners in Drummond Land and Cattle, are listed as key personnel on the BLM contract. A 2007 story in Tulsa World revealed that Charles R. Drummond, his sons Ladd Drummond and Tim Drummond, and nephew Thatcher Drummond, received more than 40 speeding tickets in the state in the last decade. At least 18 of those were dismissed in their home county.

The article states: “The four members of the Drummond family have been clocked by the Oklahoma Highway Patrol driving 95, 97 and 112 mph, all speeds listed on tickets that have been dismissed by judges in the county. Although the Drummonds paid a fine and court costs on all dismissed tickets, the tickets do not go against their driving records.

And here’s my favorite part of this story: “Osage County Special Judge John Boggs, who approved many of the dismissals as an assistant prosecutor and later as a judge, said he had no idea how fast the cited speeds were…Boggs said he had been to several bar association parties at the Drummond ranch but does not believe that he gives the family special treatment.”

The Pioneer Woman has written about Ladd’s cousin, Thatcher Drummond. Thatcher, who seems to have been arrested for speeding and driving under the influence in 2008, is the son of Tom Drummond, who was a president of the Osage County Cattlemen’s Association, on the tax committee for the National Cattlemen’s Association, and chairman of the tax committee for the Oklahoma Cattlemen’s Association.

The Drummonds are active in the Oklahoma Cattlemen’s Association, which was listed on United Organizations of the Horse original website as opposing the prevention of cruelty to equines bills that make it a felony to market, transport, consume or use of horses for human food.”

Charles R. Drummond seems to be listed as a partner of Drummond & Hull Oil Company. Charles and Ladd Drummond have been listed as shareholders and on the Board of Directors of a company called docplanet.com, an e-commerce company that provided pharmaceuticals to office-based physicians. Docplanet.com, was previously called docsales.com, which was previously called Golden Pharmaceuticals. According to a 1999 Los Angeles Times article:

“The Internet is a financial miracle. Just ask Santa Ana-based Docsales.com Inc. Three months ago, it was a dog of a company called Golden Pharmaceuticals Inc. that lost money in 13 of its previous 14 quarters and had been virtually ignored by investors. It also is a defendant in 47 lawsuits in three states related to personal injury claims by consumers who used the Phen-Fen diet drug combination it sold.

Since the BLM places our wild horses on private property, this invites questions about the people who oversee the horses and about the proximity of the horses to homes and to activities in the area, as well as any supposed “oversight” by the BLM.

While the Pioneer Woman seems nice and I’m sure we’d all like to race through town (don’t worry about any speeding tickets) to go visit and have some blackberry cobbler, there’s a nagging feeling about the unfairness in seeing a select few people have the privilege of unfettered access to our wild horses, that we, The American People, don’t have access to any more. Even while our tax dollars pay for every aspect of the BLM’s mismanagement of the Wild Horse & Burro Program.


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