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January 25, 2017 Day 5 of the First Year
9:25AM THE PRESIDENT meets with Chief of Staff, Reince Priebus
11:00AM THE PRESIDENT takes official portrait
1:00PM THE PRESIDENT departs the White House en route to the Department of Homeland Security
1:25PM THE PRESIDENT visits the Department of Homeland Security
3:10PM THE PRESIDENT departs the Department of Homeland security en route to the White House
3:25PM THE PRESIDENT arrives at the White House
4:00PM THE PRESIDENT begins phone call with Phil Bryant, Governor of Mississippi
Why March 25, the Annunciation, Was Once New Year’s Day
For centuries the Solemnity of the Annunciation on March 25, not Jan. 1, marked the first day of the New Year.
Francesco Capella, “The Annunciation,” 1765 (photo: Public Domain)
“Happy New Year!” is what we would have celebrated along with the Feast of the Annunciation on March 25 if we were living some centuries ago. Back then, the Annunciation also marked the start of the New Year.
The choice was well thought out and gives us lots to contemplate. Let’s begin at this point: when reforming the calendar in 45 B.C., Julius Caesar made Jan. 1 New Year’s Day. Celebrated with non-Christian festivities, of course.
Naturally, after Jesus life, death and resurrection, the Christians wanted to celebrate New Year’s Day in a spiritual way.
One early thought was to begin the year in springtime, a natural “new beginning.” And around the time of his Resurrection. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, what also came into play was the Jewish month of Nisan, which coincides with March and April on the Julian and Gregorian calendars and opens the sacred year. In fact, Passover is celebrated beginning on the 15th of Nisan then continues through the 22nd. Keep that in mind.
But then arose the question, on which day should the New Year begin for Christians?
That answer really narrowed down when in the sixth century there came along the monk and abbot named Dionysius Exiguus, who lived in Rome. His name isn’t familiar today, but his work certainly is, especially in the use of B.C. and A.D. He established this way of dating from the birth of Jesus Christ — Before Christ and Anno Domini (the Year of Our Lord). Dionysius wanted to start the Christian era in order to reform the Roman calendar and way of calculating events. One of his great concerns was coming up with the date of Easter.
Naturally, the first day of the New Year had to fit somewhere in the new calendar. But where?
The first day of the New Year was determined to be March 25. The Feast of the Annunciation.
But why? And how?
Let’s begin by looking at highlights of the all-important month of Nisan and its relation to Passover. And let’s recall that Jesus was crucified at the time the Passover lambs were being sacrificed.
In his gospel, John makes this clear. “It was preparation day for Passover, and it was about noon” (John 19:14). A note explains the time Jesus — who John the Baptist identified as the Lamb of God — was sentenced to death was the exact time the priests in the temple started slaughtering the Passover lambs.
The official date, then, was the 14th of Nisan. Why? Because the fixed date on which Passover starts is the 15th of Nisan. John also tells us “since it was preparation day, in order that the bodies might not remain on the cross on the Sabbath, for the Sabbath day of that week was a solemn one, the Jews asked Pilate that their legs be broken and they be taken down” (John 19:31).”
In that year the 14th of Nisan fell on a Friday since, naturally, the next day was the Sabbath, a Saturday, and the 15th of Nisan. Consequently, the Church has always observed Jesus’ crucifixion and death on a Friday — Good Friday.
So when adjusting the dates of the Jewish calendar for the Julian and Gregorian calendar, Dionysius knew that Passover begins on the night of a full moon after the northern vernal equinox, typically falling in March or April. So what did Dionysius and later others find to be the translated date of the 14th of Nisan in that year of Jesus’ crucifixion?
“Since March 25 was calculated as the date of the crucifixion of Jesus, there was a belief that one died on the same day that one was conceived,” writes Father John Fields, vice chancellor and director of communications for the Ukrainian Catholic Archeparchy of Philadelphia. “If Jesus died on March 25 — the 14th of Nisan — then he was also conceived on the 14th of Nisan — March 25.” The date we celebrate the Annunciation. And the Incarnation.
This date began the Christian Era in two ways. Thus, Dionysius set March 25 as the first day of the New Year for peoples — New Year’s Day!
This New Year’s Day was introduced in A.D. 527.
Christian New Year’s Day Grows
But everyone didn’t adopt it immediately because the Julian calendar was still in widespread use. Besides, here and there in Europe, at times Dec. 25, the Nativity, was being celebrated as New Year’s.
Then along came the Council of Tours which in A.D. 567, put an end to Jan. 1 as New Year’s Day and adopted March 25 as the official first day of the New Year. Soon, yet slowly, countries in Europe were using that date to begin the official New Year. By the 8th century England had adopted this way of reckoning the year. The Catholic Encyclopedia notes that Charlemagne is believed to be the first Christian sovereign to use it.
Father Fields and other sources also point out that March 25 also had other implications. There was a general belief coming from early martyrologies and the early Church Fathers’ writings that March 25 was also the date on which Adam was created and which marked his fall, as well as other major events — the fall of Lucifer Moses and the Israelites flight through the Red Sea and Isaac offered in sacrifice by Abraham.
In his work De trinitate, St. Augustine endorses March 25 as the day of Jesus’ Incarnation and by extension idea when he wrote: “For Christ is believed to have been conceived on the 25th of March, upon which day also he suffered…”
Annunciation New Year Marches Along
In 1582, along came Pope Gregory XIII who reformed the calendar. Doing so, for the calendar we now use, he placed New Year’s Day, the first day of the year, back to January 1. As he reformed the liturgical calendar also this became the Feast of the Circumcision.
But the Protestant countries weren’t so fast accepting the new Gregorian calendar. The British Empire continued to celebrate New Year’s Day on March 25 until finally adopting the Gregorian calendar on January 1, 1752.
“Until 1751, March 25 was also celebrated as New Year’s Day in the American colonies, since they were under British rule,” adds Father Fields.
Is March 25 still celebrated anywhere as New Year’s Day?
It sure is. In Tuscany in Italy. This year marks the 270th anniversary of the city of Pisa celebrating New Year’s Day on March 25. Florence does likewise (both celebrate the “other” New Year too). The event, begun in 1749, is quite colorful with concerts and festivals. Pisa has a procession to Pisa Cathedral which is dedicated to the Blessed Mother, while in Florence a local pilgrimage proceeds to the Basilica dell'Annunciazione.
So this March 25, the Feast of the Annunciation, remember that for centuries this feast day was the Christian New Year’s Day.
On March 25, instead of thinking of a weepy Auld Lang Syne sort of song, pray or recite with the greatest of joy the Magnificat. For through the Annunciation and Mary’s Fiat, Our Lord Jesus was incarnated and then crucified for our redemption. Now that’s something to really wish someone a Happy New Year about!
This article originally appeared March 25, 2019, at the Register.
Joseph Pronechen Joseph Pronechen is staff writer with the National Catholic Register since 2005 and before that a regular correspondent for the paper. His articles have appeared in a number of national publications including Columbia magazine, Soul, Faith and Family, Catholic Digest, Catholic Exchange, and Marian Helper. His religion features have also appeared in Fairfield County Catholic and in major newspapers. He is the author of Fruits of Fatima — Century of Signs and Wonders. He holds a graduate degree and formerly taught English and courses in film study that he developed at a Catholic high school in Connecticut. Joseph and his wife Mary reside on the East Coast.
St Dwynwen’s Day
St Dwynwen’s Day is celebrated in Wales on 25 January. But who was St Dwynwen?
St Dwynwen is the Welsh patron saint of lovers, which makes her the Welsh equivalent of St Valentine.
Dwynwen lived during the 5th century and legend has it that she was one of the prettiest of Brychan Brycheiniog’s 24 daughters. Dwynwen fell in love with a prince called Maelon Dafodrill, but unfortunately her father had already arranged that she should marry someone else.
Dwynwen was so upset that she could not marry Maelon that she begged God to make her forget him. After falling asleep, Dwynwen was visited by an angel, who appeared carrying a sweet potion designed to erase all memory of Maelon and turn him into a block of ice.
God then gave three wishes to Dwynwen. Her first wish was that Maelon be thawed her second that God meet the hopes and dreams of true lovers and third, that she should never marry. All three were fulfilled, and as a mark of her thanks, Dwynwen devoted herself to God’s service for the rest of her life.
She founded a convent on Llanddwyn, off the west coast of Anglesey, where a well named after her became a place of pilgrimage after her death in 465AD. Visitors to the well believed that the sacred fish or eels that lived in the well could foretell whether or not their relationship would be happy and whether love and happiness would be theirs. Remains of Dwynwen’s church can still be seen today.
The popularity and celebration of St Dwynwen’s Day has increased considerably in recent years. So why wait until St Valentine’s Day to make your romantic feelings known, when you can wish your loved one ‘dwi’n dy garu di ‘ (I love you) three weeks earlier?
January Daily Holidays and Observances
- Jan. 1: New Year's Day, National Hangover Day
- Jan. 2: National Science Fiction Day
- Jan. 3: J.R.R. Tolkien Day, Festival of Sleep Day, Humiliation Day
- Jan. 4: Trivia Day, National Spaghetti Day
- Jan. 5: National Bird Day
- Jan. 6: Sherlock Holmes' Birthday, Cuddle Up Day, Bean Day
- Jan. 7: Old Rock Day
- Jan. 8: Bubble Bath Day
- Jan. 9: National Static Electricity Day, National Word Nerd Day
- Jan. 10: Peculiar People Day, Houseplant Appreciation Day, National Bittersweet Chocolate Day
- Jan. 11: Learn Your Name in Morse Code Day
- Jan. 12: National Pharmacist Day, National Hot Tea Day
- Jan. 13: Make Your Dream Come True Day, National Rubber Ducky Day
- Jan. 14: Dress Up Your Pet Day
- Jan. 15: National Hat Day, National Bagel Day
- Jan. 16: Appreciate a Dragon Day, National Nothing Day
- Jan. 17: Benjamin Franklin Day, Ditch New Year's Resolutions Day
- Jan. 18: Thesaurus Day, Winnie the Pooh Day, Martin Luther King Jr. Day (third Monday of January)
- Jan. 19: National Popcorn Day, National Tin Can Day
- Jan. 20: National Cheese Lovers Day, Penguin Awareness Day
- Jan. 21: National Hugging Day, Squirrel Appreciation Day
- Jan. 22: National Blonde Brownie Day
- Jan. 23: National Handwriting Day, National Pie Day
- Jan. 24: Compliment Day, Belly Laugh Day
- Jan. 25: Opposite Day
- Jan. 26: Spouse's Day
- Jan. 27: National Chocolate Cake Day, Punch the Clock Day
- Jan. 28: National Kazoo Day, Data Privacy Day
- Jan. 29: National Puzzle Day, National Corn Chip Day
- Jan. 30: Draw a Dinosaur Day
- Jan. 31: Backward Day, Inspire Your Heart With Art Day
January is named after Janus, the ancient Roman god of gates and doors symbolizing endings, beginnings, and transitions. He's depicted with two heads: one head looking at the past and the other at the future.
9/25 - National Comic Book Day
Last week of Sept. - Banned Books Week
Wednesday of Banned Books Week - Banned Websites Awareness Day
TeenTober - replacing Teen Tech Week and Teen Book Week
10/2 - Phileas Fogg's Wager Day - "I will bet twenty thousand pounds against anyone who wishes, that I will make a tour of the world in eighty days or less."
10/4-10 (first full week of October) National Mystery Series Week
10/6 - Mad Hatter Day (because his hat says 10/6)
10/11 - Myths and Legends Day
10/16 - Dictionary Day (Noah Webster’s Birthday)
10/18 - Newspaper Comic Strip Day - the first newspaper comic strip ever run was "The Yellow Kid Takes a Hand at Golf" by Richard Fenton Outcault, on October 18, 1896.
10/18-24 National Friends of Libraries Week
Executive Order on Ensuring the Future Is Made in All of America by All of America’s Workers
By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, it is hereby ordered as follows:
Section 1. Policy. It is the policy of my Administration that the United States Government should, consistent with applicable law, use terms and conditions of Federal financial assistance awards and Federal procurements to maximize the use of goods, products, and materials produced in, and services offered in, the United States. The United States Government should, whenever possible, procure goods, products, materials, and services from sources that will help American businesses compete in strategic industries and help America’s workers thrive. Additionally, to promote an accountable and transparent procurement policy, each agency should vest waiver issuance authority in senior agency leadership, where appropriate and consistent with applicable law.
Sec. 2. Definitions. (a) “Agency” means any authority of the United States that is an “agency” under section 3502(1) of title 44, United States Code, other than those considered to be independent regulatory agencies, as defined in section 3502(5) of title 44, United States Code.
(b) “Made in America Laws” means all statutes, regulations, rules, and Executive Orders relating to Federal financial assistance awards or Federal procurement, including those that refer to “Buy America” or “Buy American,” that require, or provide a preference for, the purchase or acquisition of goods, products, or materials produced in the United States, including iron, steel, and manufactured goods offered in the United States. Made in America Laws include laws requiring domestic preference for maritime transport, including the Merchant Marine Act of 1920 (Public Law 66-261), also known as the Jones Act.
(c) “Waiver” means an exception from or waiver of Made in America Laws, or the procedures and conditions used by an agency in granting an exception from or waiver of Made in America Laws.
Sec. 3. Review of Agency Action Inconsistent with Administration Policy. (a) The head of each agency shall, as soon as practicable and as appropriate and consistent with applicable law, including the Administrative Procedure Act, consider suspending, revising, or rescinding those agency actions that are inconsistent with the policy set forth in section 1 of this order.
(b) The head of each agency shall, as soon as practicable and as appropriate and consistent with applicable law, including the Administrative Procedure Act, consider proposing any additional agency actions necessary to enforce the policy set forth in section 1 of this order.
Sec. 4. Updating and Centralizing the Made in America Waiver Process. (a) The Director of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) shall establish within OMB the Made in America Office. The Made in America Office shall be headed by a Director of the Made in America Office (Made in America Director), who shall be appointed by the Director of OMB.
(b) Before an agency grants a waiver, and unless the OMB Director provides otherwise, the agency (granting agency) shall provide the Made in America Director with a description of its proposed waiver and a detailed justification for the use of goods, products, or materials that have not been mined, produced, or manufactured in the United States.
(i) Within 45 days of the date of the appointment of the Made in America Director, and as appropriate thereafter, the Director of OMB, through the Made in America Director, shall:
(1) publish a list of the information that granting agencies shall include when submitting such descriptions of proposed waivers and justifications to the Made in America Director and
(2) publish a deadline, not to exceed 15 business days, by which the Director of OMB, through the Made in America Director, either will notify the head of the agency that the Director of OMB, through the Made in America Director, has waived each review described in subsection (c) of this section or will notify the head of the agency in writing of the result of the review.
(ii) To the extent permitted by law and consistent with national security and executive branch confidentiality interests, descriptions of proposed waivers and justifications submitted to the Made in America Director by granting agencies shall be made publicly available on the website established pursuant to section 6 of this order.
(c) The Director of OMB, through the Made in America Director, shall review each proposed waiver submitted pursuant to subsection (b) of this section, except where such review has been waived as described in subsection (b)(i)(2) of this section.
(i) If the Director of OMB, through the Made in America Director, determines that issuing the proposed waiver would be consistent with applicable law and the policy set forth in section 1 of this order, the Director of OMB, through the Made in America Director, shall notify the granting agency of that determination in writing.
(ii) If the Director of OMB, through the Made in America Director, determines that issuing the proposed waiver would not be consistent with applicable law or the policy set forth in section 1 of this order, the Director of OMB, through the Made in America Director, shall notify the granting agency of the determination and shall return the proposed waiver to the head of the agency for further consideration, providing the granting agency with a written explanation for the determination.
(1) If the head of the agency disagrees with some or all of the bases for the determination and return, the head of the agency shall so inform the Made in America Director in writing.
(2) To the extent permitted by law, disagreements or conflicts between the Made in America Director and the head of any agency shall be resolved in accordance with procedures that parallel those set forth in section 7 of Executive Order 12866 of September 30, 1993 (Regulatory Planning and Review), with respect to the Director of the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs within OMB.
(d) When a granting agency is obligated by law to act more quickly than the review procedures established in this section allow, the head of the agency shall notify the Made in America Director as soon as possible and, to the extent practicable, comply with the requirements set forth in this section. Nothing in this section shall be construed as displacing agencies’ authorities or responsibilities under law.
Sec. 5. Accounting for Sources of Cost Advantage. To the extent permitted by law, before granting a waiver in the public interest, the relevant granting agency shall assess whether a significant portion of the cost advantage of a foreign-sourced product is the result of the use of dumped steel, iron, or manufactured goods or the use of injuriously subsidized steel, iron, or manufactured goods. The granting agency may consult with the International Trade Administration in making this assessment if the granting agency deems such consultation to be helpful. The granting agency shall integrate any findings from the assessment into its waiver determination as appropriate.
Sec. 6. Promoting Transparency in Federal Procurement. (a) The Administrator of General Services shall develop a public website that shall include information on all proposed waivers and whether those waivers have been granted. The website shall be designed to enable manufacturers and other interested parties to easily identify proposed waivers and whether those waivers have been granted. The website shall also provide publicly available contact information for each granting agency.
(b) The Director of OMB, through the Made in America Director, shall promptly report to the Administrator of General Services all proposed waivers, along with the associated descriptions and justifications discussed in section 4(b) of this order, and whether those waivers have been granted. Not later than 5 days after receiving this information, the Administrator of General Services shall, to the extent permitted by law and consistent with national security and executive branch confidentiality interests, make this information available to the public by posting it on the website established under this section.
Sec. 7. Supplier Scouting. To the extent appropriate and consistent with applicable law, agencies shall partner with the Hollings Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP), discussed in the Manufacturing Extension Partnership Improvement Act (title V of Public Law 114-329), to conduct supplier scouting in order to identify American companies, including small- and medium-sized companies, that are able to produce goods, products, and materials in the United States that meet Federal procurement needs.
Sec. 8. Promoting Enforcement of the Buy American Act of 1933. (a) Within 180 days of the date of this order, the Federal Acquisition Regulatory Council (FAR Council) shall consider proposing for notice and public comment amendments to the applicable provisions in the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR), title 48, Code of Federal Regulations, consistent with applicable law, that would:
(i) replace the “component test” in Part 25 of the FAR that is used to identify domestic end products and domestic construction materials with a test under which domestic content is measured by the value that is added to the product through U.S.-based production or U.S. job-supporting economic activity
(ii) increase the numerical threshold for domestic content requirements for end products and construction materials and
(iii) increase the price preferences for domestic end products and domestic construction materials.
(b) The FAR Council shall consider and evaluate public comments on any regulations proposed pursuant to subsection (a) of this section and shall promptly issue a final rule, if appropriate and consistent with applicable law and the national security interests of the United States.
Sec. 9. Updates to the List of Nonavailable Articles. Before the FAR Council proposes any amendment to the FAR to update the list of domestically nonavailable articles at section 25.104(a) of the FAR, the Director of OMB, through the Administrator of the Office of Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP), shall review the amendment in consultation with the Secretary of Commerce and the Made in America Director, paying particular attention to economic analyses of relevant markets and available market research, to determine whether there is a reasonable basis to conclude that the article, material, or supply is not mined, produced, or manufactured in the United States in sufficient and reasonably available commercial quantities and of a satisfactory quality. The Director of OMB, through the Administrator of OFPP, shall make these findings available to the FAR Council for consideration.
Sec. 10. Report on Information Technology That Is a Commercial Item. The FAR Council shall promptly review existing constraints on the extension of the requirements in Made in America Laws to information technology that is a commercial item and shall develop recommendations for lifting these constraints to further promote the policy set forth in section 1 of this order, as appropriate and consistent with applicable law.
Sec. 11. Report on Use of Made in America Laws. Within 180 days of the date of this order, the head of each agency shall submit to the Made in America Director a report on:
(a) the agency’s implementation of, and compliance with, Made in America Laws
(b) the agency’s ongoing use of any longstanding or nationwide waivers of any Made in America Laws, with a written description of the consistency of such waivers with the policy set forth in section 1 of this order and
(c) recommendations for how to further effectuate the policy set forth in section 1 of this order.
Sec. 12. Bi-Annual Report on Made in America Laws. Bi‑annually following the initial submission described in section 11 of this order, the head of each agency shall submit to the Made in America Director a report on:
(a) the agency’s ongoing implementation of, and compliance with, Made in America Laws
(b) the agency’s analysis of goods, products, materials, and services not subject to Made in America Laws or where requirements of the Made in America Laws have been waived
(c) the agency’s analysis of spending as a result of waivers issued pursuant to the Trade Agreements Act of 1979, as amended, 19 U.S.C. 2511, separated by country of origin and
(d) recommendations for how to further effectuate the policy set forth in section 1 of this order.
Sec. 13. Ensuring Implementation of Administration Policy on Federal Government Property. Within 180 days of the date of this order, the Administrator of General Services shall submit to the Made in America Director recommendations for ensuring that products offered to the general public on Federal property are procured in accordance with the policy set forth in section 1 of this order.
Sec. 14. Revocation of Certain Presidential and Regulatory Actions. (a) Executive Order 13788 of April 18, 2017 (Buy American and Hire American), section 5 of Executive Order 13858 of January 31, 2019 (Strengthening Buy-American Preferences for Infrastructure Projects), and Executive Order 13975 of January 14, 2021 (Encouraging Buy American Policies for the United States Postal Service), are hereby revoked.
(b) Executive Order 10582 of December 17, 1954 (Prescribing Uniform Procedures for Certain Determinations Under the Buy-America Act), and Executive Order 13881 of July 15, 2019 (Maximizing Use of American-Made Goods, Products, and Materials), are superseded to the extent that they are inconsistent with this order.
Sec. 15. Severability. If any provision of this order, or the application of any provision to any person or circumstance, is held to be invalid, the remainder of this order and the application of its other provisions to any other persons or circumstances shall not be affected thereby.
Sec. 16. General Provisions. (a) Nothing in this order shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect:
(i) the authority granted by law to an executive department or agency, or the head thereof or
(ii) the functions of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget relating to budgetary, administrative, or legislative proposals.
(b) This order shall be implemented consistent with applicable law and subject to the availability of appropriations.
(c) This order is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person.
January 25, day 5of year 1 - History
Because Julius Caesar said so.
Early Roman Calendar
Since long before Caesar’s time, date keeping was dicey. In fact, the 355-day Roman calendar that immediately preceded Caesar’s Julian, worked on a four year cycle where every other year, an additional month was inserted between February (Februarius), the last month of that calendar year, and March (Martius), the first month of the year this was done in order to catch the calendar up with the Earth’s orbit of the Sun. That additional month, called the Mensis intercalaris, brought in the missing 22 or 23 days, and to even things up, took another five days from February in the years it was present.
Since the calendar had been designed to ensure the proper observance of religious dates, priests, called pontifices, were responsible for declaring when the interclaris month should begin and end. Since these priests were also involved with politics, they sometimes:
Misused their power by intercalating days or not intercalating them, merely in order to lengthen or shorten some magistrate’s year of office, or to increase the gains of some government contractor, or to inflict loss upon him.
By the time Caesar came around, the Roman calendar was in shambles, and in 46 BC, Julius Caesar commanded that it be changed.
The Julian calendar’s beginnings were as crazy as the old Roman calendar at its worst:
In order to wipe out the consequences of past neglect, it was necessary that the year 46 BC (called by Macrobius the annus confusionis) should extend to 445 days. The normal number of 355 days had already been increased by the addition of the ordinary 23 days, inserted after Feb. 23. As many as 67 days, divided into two menses intercalares . . . were now interposed between November and December. . . . This year thus consisted of 15 months.
After this “year of confusion,” the new calendar really started. Intercalation was abolished, and each year was increased to 365 days, with a leap year added every fourth year (quarto quoque anno) to February. The months of the calendar after Caesar’s shake-up followed the old Roman calendar closely and most are familiar to us even today: Ianuarius, Februarius, Martius, Aprilis, Maius, Iunius, Guintilis, Sextilis, September, October, November and December.
Along with these changes, Caesar set the New Year to January 1. Why? Since 153 BC, January 1 was the day new consuls in Rome took office and Romans had commonly used the name of the two consuls to identify a specific year in question. Thus, by officially making January 1 start the New Year, it simply lined up with the consular year.
As to why the consular year started on January 1 instead of the original Roman Calendar New Year’s day of March 1, this isn’t known. That said, there are references that seem to imply that January 1 may have begun marking the New Year as early as 189 BC, which precedes when the consular year started beginning on that day.
One proposed reason for this switch is that January is thought by most to have been named after the god of transitions and beginnings, Janus, during the reign of the second King of Rome, Numa Pompilius, who lived from 753-673 BC. Thus, it was naturally enough for the Romans to eventually decide to make the switch. However, whether this is the reason or not is very much up for debate.
Although the Julian Calendar was relatively accurate, its use of 365.25 days in a calendar year, as opposed to the precise 365.2425 days, over centuries, created a discrepancy in the calendar. In fact, by the time Pope Gregory XIII (1572-1585) became the Bishop of Rome, the Julian calendar had lost 10 days.
It was this discrepancy that brought about the reformed calendar. Actually beginning 20 years before the calendar took effect with the Council of Trent in 1563, church leaders wanted to restore the spring equinox to the date it was when the First Council of Nicaea was convened in 325 (by 1563, the equinox was falling on March 11, rather than March 21).
As simple as making a Papal decree, Gregory issued the Inter gravissimas on February 24, 1582, and nearly eight months later, the last day of the Julian calendar, October 4, 1582, was followed by the first day of the Gregorian calendar, October 15, 1582. Voila!
Today, the Gregorian calendar is the unofficial calendar of the United States and the United Nations, as well as most countries in the world.
New Year’s Day
Since before even Caesar’s time, people celebrated the New Year. In ancient Babylon, this began after the spring equinox in March, and part of the celebration including subjecting the king to ritual humiliation. In fact, “if royal tears were shed, it was seen as a sign that Marduk [a god] was satisfied and had symbolically extended the king’s rule.”
After he was murdered by a small group of his “friends” (“Et tu, Brute?”), the Roman Senate made Caesar a god on January 1, 42 BC, a date which coincided with the time-honored practice of making offerings to Janus in the hope of having good fortune throughout the year.
Throughout the Middle Ages in Europe, January 1st’s New Year’s celebrations were discouraged, as they were seen by church leaders as a pagan practice. Instead, other days were often used as a substitute varying from nation to nation. This changed when the Gregorian calendar was instituted and, at least in the Catholic nations, January 1 once again became the official New Year, and it slowly spread from there with the Gregorian calendar.
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- As mentioned, many protestant nations ignored the Gregorian calendar for some time. England stuck to the Julian Calendar until 1751 before finally making the switch. Orthodox countries took even longer to accept the change in calendars. Russia, for one did not convert to the Gregorian calendar until after the Russian Revolution in 1917. The funny thing was, in 1908, the Russian Olympic team arrived 12 days late to the London Olympics because of it.
- Under the Gregorian calendar we do not have a leap year every four years, since to properly align the calendar with the Earth’s orbit, an additional day is required in only 97 out of 400 years. So, leap years are calculated as follows:
Every year that is exactly divisible by four is a leap year, except for years that are exactly divisible by 100, but these centurial years are leap years if they are exactly divisible by 400. For example, the years 1700, 1800 and 1900 are not leap years, but the year 2000 is.
Using the Years Between Calculator
To compute the distance in years between two dates, fill out the top two inputs:
- First date: Enter the start date for the math
- Second date: Enter the end date for the calculation
Next, hit the blue 'Calculate Years Difference' button. You'll quickly receive one result:
- Time Between: The difference between the two dates including both the year difference and the number of remainder days
How does the tool add up the days?
The year calculator starts by counting the entire first day, but doesn't count the ending date.
Try it: enter the day and the next date and you'll get '1', not '2' or '0' days in between.
Does the year calculator include leap years?
Yes, it sure does. Years are abstractions though, so unless you try to deliberately bracket February 29 in a leap year you might not even know a leap year is in the calculation.
However, leap years are in the tool. If you see a day difference that looks "off by one", it's actually correct and you're seeing the extra leap year day counted.
Does the first date have to come before the second?
Nope. Set them in either order you'd like, or even set them to the same date – the tool will figure it out.
January 25, day 5of year 1 - History
Links to History & Information of the Holiday
|Birth Flower - Daffodil|
|March Monthly Celebrations and Observances: National Nutrition Month, Red Cross Month, Social Worker's Month, Women's History Month and Colorectal Cancer Awareness Month and Umbrella Month, Peanut Month, Noodle Month, Mirth Month, Spring Month, Hoops Madness, Poetry Month, Umbrella Month, Red Cross Month, Youth Art Month, Academy Awards Month, Ethics Awareness Month, Help Someone See Month, Social Worker's Month, Women's History Month, National Nutrition Month, Colorectal Cancer Awareness Month, Honor Society Awareness Month, Humorists Are Artists Month, International Listening Awareness Month, International Mirth Month, Irish-American Heritage Month, Music in Our Schools Month, National Collision Awareness Month, National Craft Month, National Kite Month, National Nutrition Month, Optimism Month, Play the Recorder Month, Poison Prevention Awareness Month |
|National Pig Day||March 1|
|St. Davids Day||March 1|
|If Pets Had Thumbs Day||March 3|
|Bonza Bottler Day||March 3|
|Dentists Day||March 6|
|*Purim (Begins at sundown)||March|
|International Womens Day||March 8|
|Panic Day!||March 9|
|*Employee Appreciation Day||March 10|
|Money Day||March 10|
|*Stop Smoking Day||March 12|
|Pi Day||March 14|
|Birthday of Girl Scouting||March 15|
|Incredible Kid Day||March 15|
|Ides Of March||March 16|
|Incredible Kid Day||March 17|
|St. Patricks Day||March 17|
|Anniversary of Campfire Boys and Girls||March 18|
|St. Josephs Day||March 20|
|*Great American Meat Out||March|
|*Mothering Sunday (England - A model to our Mother's Day)|
|Birth Flower - Sweet Pea|
|April Monthly Celebrations and Observances: National Poetry Month, Guitar Month, Humor Month, Autism Awareness Month, Cancer Control Month and Occupational Therapy Month, Animal Cruelty Prevention Month, Autism Awareness Month, Books to Brighten Young Minds Months, Community Spirit Month, Confederate History Month, Couple Appreciation Month, International Customer Loyalty Month, International Guitar Month, International Legacy Month, Keep America Beautiful Month, Lawn and Garden Month, Mathematics Education Month, National Grilled Cheese Sandwich Month, National Humor Month, National Pet First Aid Awareness Month, National Poetry Month, National Self-Publishing Month, National Smile Month, National Youth Sports Safety Month, Occupational Therapy Month, Pets Are Wonderful Month, School Library Month, Spring Break Month, Straw Hat Month, World Habitat Awareness Month |
|April Fools Day ( All Fool's Day )||April 1|
|Children's Book Day||April 2|
|*Palm Sunday (Celebrated the Sunday before Easter)||April|
|Bonza Bottler Day||April 4|
|*Passover (Begins at Sundown)||April|
|Fun At Work Day||April 5|
|No Housework Day||April 7|
|California Poppy Day||April 7|
|Birth Flower - Lily of the Valley|
|May Weekly Celebrations and Observances: |
Family Week, Tourism Week, Nurses' Week, Postcard Week, National Police Week, National Etiquette Week, Wildflower Week, Pickle Week, National Safe Boating Week, National Pet Week, Emergency Medical Services Week, Be Kind to Animals Week, Friends Week, Poetry Week, National Teacher Appreciation Week
|Birth Flower - Rose|
|Weekly Celebrations and Observances: |
Step Parent's Week, National Fishing Week, eMail Week, Forgiveness Week, Take Your Pet to Work Week, Little League Week, Nursing Assistant's Week, Universal Father's Week, Helen Keller Deaf - Blindness Awareness Week, Amateur Radio Week, Special Education Week, International Volunteer's Week
|Birth Flower - Gladiolas|
|August is: Golf Month, Back to School Month |
|*Friendship Day (Celebrated the first Sunday in August)||August|
|US Coast Guard Day||August 4|
|Sister's Day||August 5|
|International Forgiveness Day||August 5|
|National Lighthouse Day||August 7|
|Senior Citizens Day||August 8|
|Bonza Bottler Day||August 8|
|Son's and Daughter's Day||August 11|
|Left-Hander's Day||August 13|
|V.J. Day||August 14|
|Relaxation Day||August 15|
|Assumption Day||August 15|
|Bad Poetry Day||August 18|
|National Aviation Day||August 19|
|Hawaii Day||August 21|
|Be An Angel Day||August 22|
|Tooth Fairy Day||August 22|
|Ride The Wind Day||August 23|
|Sam Spade Day||August 24|
|Kiss and Make Up Day||August 25|
|Women's Equality Day (Suffrage)||August 26|
|Just Because Day||August 27|
|Race Your Mouse Around The Icons Day||August 28|
|Birth Flower - Aster|
|September is: |
Honey Month, Piano Month, Little League Month, Fall Hat Month, National Hispanic Heritage Month (September 15th thru October 15th), Subliminal Marketing Month and Kids Good Manners Month,
Piano Month, Honey Month, Chicken Month, Back to School, Fall Hat Month, Autumn Fun Month, Little League Month, Classical Music Month, Hispanic Heritage Month, Kids Good Manners Month
|Chicken Boy Day||September 1|
|*Labor Day (Observed the first Monday in September)||September|
|*Teacher's Day||September 4|
|Be Late For Something Day||September 5|
|Fight Procrastination Day||September 6|
|*National Grandparents Day (Observed the first Sunday after Labor Day)||September|
|Bonza Bottler Day||September 9|
|Patriot Day (In honor of those who lost their lives in the terrorist attack on the United States, September 11, 2001) Became law 12-18-2001 (Display National Flag) A Tribute To New York||September 11|
|Video Game Day||September 12|
|Blame Some One Else Day||September|
|Women's Friendship Day||September 16|
|Stay Away From Seattle Day||September 16|
|Preserve The Ozone Day||September 16|
|Stepfamily Day||September 16|
|Birth Flower - Marigold|
|October is: |
Caramel Month, Cookie Month, Dinosaur Month, E-Card Month, Fired Up Month, Breast Cancer Awareness Month, AIDS Awareness Month, Clergy Appreciation Month, Pregnancy and Infant Awareness Month, Roller Skating Month, Sarcastics Month, Stamp Collecting Month and Vegetarian Awareness Month, National Hispanic Heritage Month (September 15th thru October 15th) and National Disability Employment Awareness Month, AIDS Awareness Month, Breast Cancer Awareness Month, Caramel Month, Clergy Appreciation Month, Cookie Month, Dinosaur Month, Eat Country Ham Month, eCard Month, Fall Fired Up Month, Gay & Lesbian History Month, Pregnancy & Infant Awareness, Pretzel Month, Pumpkin Festival, Rollerskating Month, Sarcastics Awareness Month, Stamp Collecting Month, Vegetarian Awareness Month
|*Vegetarian Day||October 1|
|World Habitat Day||October 2|
|Techies Day||October 3|
|Toot Your Flute Day||October 4|
|St. Francis Day||October 4|
|*Child Health Day (Observed the first Monday in October)||October|
|Intergeneration Day (Observed the 1st Sunday in October)||October|
|Global Learn Day||October 8|
|Leif Erikson Day||October 9|
|Tuxedo Day||October 10|
|Bonza Bottler Day||October 10|
|Bring Your Teddy Bear To Work Day||October 11|
|General Casimir Pulaski Day (Father of the American Cavalry)||October 11|
|Emergency Nurses Day||October 11|
|Columbus (Actual)||October 12|
|Train Your Brain Day||October 13|
|Frustration Scream Day||October 13|
|*National Childrens Day (Celebrated the 2nd Sunday in October)||October|
|*Columbus Day||October 12|
|*Thanksgiving (Canada) (Celebrated the 2nd Monday in October)||October|
|Be Bald and Be Free Day||October 14|
|White Cane Safety Day||October 15|
|National Bosss Day||October 16|
|School Librarian Day||October 16|
|*Sweetest Day (Celebrated the 3rd Saturday in October)||October|
|Bela Lugosi's Birthday (October 20, 1882)||October 20|
|Timothy Leary's Birthday||October 22|
|Franz Liszt's Birthday (1881)||October 22|
|National Mole Day||October 23|
|TV Talk Show Host Day||October 23|
|International Forgiveness Day||October 24|
|United Nations Day||October 24|
|*Mother-In-Law Day (Celebrated the 4th Sunday in October)||October|
|National Music Day - As submitted by Reynolds Middle School. Pump up the volume on National Music Day! Today is the day to just sit back and relax listening to your favorite songs. Whatever your style is, have fun with it!||October 27|
|Make A Difference Day||October 28|
|Juliette Gordon Low's Birthday (1860) (Founder of the Girl Scouts)||October 31|
|Trick or Treat|
|Birth Flower - Chrysanthemum|
|November is: |
Aviation History Month, Diabetes Awareness Month, Georgia Pecan Month, Native American Heritage Month, Peanut Butter Lover Month, Vegan Awareness Month and Sleep Comfort Month, Aviation History Month, Diabetes Awareness Month, Georgia Pecan Month, Native American Heritage Month, Peanut Butter Lover's Month, Sleep Comfort Month, Vegan Awareness Month
|All Saints Day||November 1|
|Day of the Dead||November 1-2|
|All Soul's Day||November 2|
|Culture Day (Japan)||November 3|
|Sandwich Day||November 3|
|King Tut Day||November 4|
|Guy Fawkes Day (The Gunpowder Plot - Britain)||November 5|
|Saxophone Day||November 6|
Popular Culture 1982
1982 was the year a computer scientist ( Scott Fahlman ) from Carnegie Mellon University first suggested the use of Smiley or emoticon as a way of expressing emotion in an email :-)
Freeware first used by Andrew Flueleman and Jim Knopf to distribute their application which allowed programs to be copied, in 1984 the distribution of this type of software changed from freeware to Shareware ( name thought up by Bob Wallace )
Michael Jackson releases his second adult solo album, Thriller.
Graceland the home of Elvis Presley opens to the public
The screen legend Grace Kelly / Princess Grace of Monaco dies on September 14th in car crash