15cm K18 Seen From Rear

15cm K18 Seen From Rear


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This rear view of the 15cm Kannon 18 gives a clear view of the old fashioned box trail, which greatly reduced the amount of traverse available without the use of a separate turntable.

German Heavy Artillery Guns 1933-1945, Alexander Lüdeke .Despite the title actually covers light, medium and heavy artillery as well as mortars and anti-tank guns (excludes railway guns, flak and rocket launchers). Each gets a useful write-up, supported by stats and at least one photo. Covers German-built guns and the many types captured and used by the Wehrmacht. [read full review]


1968 Z28 Camaro Unrestored Original with only 39K miles

You are bidding on a numbers matching 1968 Z28. From front to rear bumper, this Z28 retains all its original parts, not including tires, spark plug wires, (originals were retained) and upper radiator hose. The car was originally purchased at Ellis Brooks Chevrolet in San Francisco CA. in the summer of 1968. The Z28 has been a California car all its life until recently coming to Georgia. Over the life of the car, great efforts have been exhausted to keeping all the original parts with this car, even down to the original tower radiator hose clamps.

This Z28 has 39,851 original miles and is unmolested. Some of the factory options are as follows: Rally Sport, custom interior, console, power steering, sport mirror, AM/FM radio. It has factory 4.10 rear end and a M21 Transmission.

The original, “born with”, engine has never been out of the car and the performance is excellent. Also, the car has its original M21 transmission along with its original Muncie shifter, which is very rare because most were changed during a Z28s life. The original “BV” coded (4.10) rear end is also with the car.

Z28 still retains its ORIGINAL Rally Green paint and is in excellent condition. The car retains all its original body panels and has never seen any accidents and is completely rust free. This Z28 is fully documented with Protect O Plate, all books/manuals and original keys. The complete history is documented back to the original dealership. Also, the original California Black Plates and several pieces of original dealer information are still with the car.

The interior is all original and in fantastic condition. Seats, carpet, steering wheel, radio (the entire interior) are all original and in mint condition showing barely any wear. Car performs flawlessly and has excellent performance. The exhaust, tailpipes and muffler hangersare the same ones that were on the car when it left the factory. Exhaust manifolds have never been removed (French locks retained). All the glass is original, even the windshield, as is the date coded mirror. All the wheels are dated and are the ones that were on the car when the car left the factory. Paint, beauty bands and center caps are excellent and original. Original spare and tire are still with the car. I was limited to how many pictures I could list on ebay. If there is something you want to see, please don’t hesitate to ask or reach out to me for any questions you may have.

Seven, Seven, Zero-Three, Six, One-Three, One, Two, Seven

All funds must clear bank before Georgia title is released. Car is for sale locally, so I reserve the right to send the auction early.

Below is a list of the important date coded items:

337090= Sequence Number or 337090th car built for 1968 model year.

04C= Body Build Date 3rd week of April K177= 11th day of the month, 177th body sequence

68-12437= 1968, 8 cyl. 2 dr. coupe LOS= Los Angeles 35937= Fisher Body Sequence

TR 714= Black Custom Interior J-J =Rally Green Paint, no vinyl top

VO328MO= Flint, Michigan built March 28th, 1968 302/290 with manual 4 speed Transmission

Cast Date= C118 March 11, 1968

Block Cast Number= 3914678 302/290 4 bolt main

Heads= LH 3917291 J267/ RH 3917291 J277 (October 26th and 27th 1967)

Carburetor= 3923289 DZ List 4053 833, 3rd week of March 1968 Holley 4bbl for 302

Distributor=1111467 8BB February 8, 1968

Alternator= 1100814 8D18 April 18, 1968

Starter= 1108367 8C28 March 28, 1968

Exhaust Manifolds= RH 3872730, LH 3892683

Thermostat Housing= 3827369 B4

Transmission= 18L337090 VIN number P8C20 P=Muncie Transmission 8=1968 C20= March 20th, 1968

Master Cylinder= 5460346 WT

Wheels= K18 3-20 DF, K18 3-21 DF, K18 3-20 DF, K18 3-20 DF March 20th and March 21st 1968

Axle= BV 1227 G1E BV=4.10, 1227= December 27th 1967, G1= Chevrolet Gear and Axle 1st shift E=Eaton Positraction


Contents

The SKS has a conventional layout, with a wooden stock and rifle grip. It is a gas-operated rifle that has a spring-loaded bolt carrier and a gas piston operating rod that work to unlock and cycle the action via gas pressure exerting pressure against them. The bolt is locked to contain the pressure of ignition at the moment of firing by tilting downwards at its rear and being held by a lug milled into the receiver. At the moment of firing, the bolt carrier is pushed rearwards, which causes it to lift the bolt, unlocking it, and allowing it to be carried rearwards against a spring. This allows the fired case to be ejected and a new round from the magazine to be carried into the chamber. The SKS represents an intermediate step in the process towards the development of true assault rifles, being shorter and less powerful than the semi-automatic rifles that preceded it, such as the Soviet SVT-40, but being longer (10 cm or 4in) than AK-series rifles which replaced it. As a result, it has a slightly higher muzzle velocity than those arms that replaced it.

The SKS's ten-round internal box magazine can be loaded either by hand or from a stripper clip. Cartridges stored in the magazine can be removed by pulling back on a latch located forward of the trigger guard (thus opening the "floor" of the magazine and allowing the rounds to fall out). [2] In typical military use, the stripper clips are disposable. If necessary, they can be reloaded multiple times and reused.

While early (1949–50) Soviet models had spring-loaded firing pins, which held the pin away from cartridge primers until struck by the action's hammer, most variants of the SKS have a free-floating firing pin within the bolt. Because of this design, care must be taken during cleaning (especially after long storage packed in Cosmoline) to ensure that the firing pin can freely move and does not stick in the forward position within the bolt. SKS firing pins that are stuck in the forward position have been known to cause accidental "slamfires" (the rifle firing on its own, without pulling the trigger and often without being fully locked). This behavior is less likely with the hard primer military-spec ammo for which the SKS was designed, but as with any rifle, users should properly maintain their firearms. For collectors, slamfires are more likely when the bolt still has remnants of Cosmoline embedded in it that retards firing pin movement. As it is triangular in cross section with only one way to properly insert it (notches up), slamfires can also result if the firing pin is inserted in one of the other two orientations.

In most variants (Yugoslav models being the most notable exception), the barrel is chrome-lined for increased wear and heat tolerance from sustained fire and to resist corrosion from chlorate-primed corrosive ammunition, as well as to facilitate cleaning. Chrome bore lining is common in military rifles. Although it can diminish precision, its effect on practical accuracy in a rifle of this type is limited.

The front sight has a hooded post. The rear sight is an open notch type which is adjustable for elevation from 100 to 1,000 metres (110 to 1,090 yd). There is also an all-purpose "battle" setting on the sight ladder (marked "П", for "Прямой выстрел", meaning "Straight shot"), set for 300 metres (330 yards). This is attained by moving the elevation slide to the rear of the ladder as far as it will go. [2] [3] The Yugoslav M59/66A1 has folddown luminous sights for use when firing under poor light conditions, while the older M59 and M59/66 do not. [2]

All military SKSs have a bayonet attached to the underside of the barrel, which is extended and retracted via a spring-loaded hinge. Both blade and spike bayonets were produced. [2] Spike bayonets were used on the 1949 Tula Russian SKS-45, the Chinese Type 56 from mid 1964 onward, and the Albanian Model 561. The Yugoslavian-made M59/66 and M59/66A1 variants are the only SKS models with an integral grenade launching attachment. [2]

The SKS is easily field stripped and reassembled without specialized tools, and the trigger group and magazine can be removed with an unfired cartridge, or with the receiver cover. The rifle has a cleaning kit stored in a trapdoor in the buttstock, with a cleaning rod running under the barrel, in the same style as the AK-47. The cap for the cleaning kit also serves as a cleaning rod guide, to protect the crown from being damaged during cleaning. The body of the cleaning kit serves as the cleaning rod handle. In common with some other Soviet-era designs, it trades some accuracy for ruggedness, reliability, ease of maintenance, ease of use, and low manufacturing cost.

During World War II, many countries realized that existing rifles, such as the Mosin–Nagant, were too long and heavy and fired powerful cartridges that were effective in medium machine guns with a range in excess of 2,000 metres (2,200 yd), creating excessive recoil. These cartridges, such as the 8×57mm Mauser, .303 British, .30-06 Springfield, and 7.62×54mmR were effective in rifles to ranges of up to 1,000 metres (1,100 yards) however, it was noted that most firefights took place at maximum ranges of between 100 and 300 metres (110 and 330 yards). Only a highly trained specialist, such as a sniper, could employ the full-power rifle cartridge to its true potential. Both the Soviet Union and Germany realized this and designed new firearms for smaller, intermediate-power cartridges. The U.S. fielded an intermediate round in the .30 (7.62 mm) U.S., now known as the .30 Carbine used in the M1 carbine, it was widely used by American forces in WWII but was much weaker than German and Soviet intermediate rounds, and was never intended to replace the .30-06 rifle cartridge.

The German approach was the production of a series of intermediate cartridges and rifles in the interwar period, eventually developing the Maschinenkarabiner, or machine-carbine, which later evolved into the Sturmgewehr 44, which was produced in large numbers during the war, and chambered in the 7.92×33mm Kurz intermediate round.

The Soviet Union type qualified a new intermediate round in 1943, at the same time it began to field the Mosin–Nagant M44 carbine as a general issue small arm. However, the M44, which had a side-folding bayonet and shorter overall length, still fired the full-powered round of its predecessors. A small number of SKS rifles were tested on the front line in early 1945 against the Germans in World War II. [4]

Design-wise, the SKS relies on the AVS-36 (developed by the same designer, Simonov) to a point that some consider it a shortened AVS-36, stripped of select-fire capability and re-chambered for the 7.62×39mm cartridge. [5] This viewpoint is problematic, as the AVS uses a sliding block bolt locking device, while the SKS employs a more reliable tilting-bolt design inherited from the PTRS-41, which was itself taken from SVT-40. The bolt mechanism is one of the defining features of a rifle, having a different bolt means the SKS and AVS merely appear similar in layout, while differing vastly in bolt lockup, caliber, size, and that one has a fixed magazine and the other has a detachable magazine. It also owes a debt to the M44, incorporating the carbine size and integral bayonet.

In 1949, the SKS was officially adopted into the Soviet Army, manufactured at the Tula Armory from 1949 until 1955 and the Izhevsk Mechanical Plant in 1953 and 1954. Although the quality of Soviet carbines manufactured at these state-run arsenals was quite high, its design was already obsolete compared to the Kalashnikov which was selective-fire, lighter, had three times the magazine capacity, and had the potential to be less labor-intensive to manufacture. Gradually over the next few years, AK-47 production increased until the extant SKS carbines in service were relegated primarily to non-infantry and to second-line troops. They remained in service in this fashion even as late as the 1980s, and possibly the early 1990s. The SKS was the standard service rifle used by Soviet Air Defence Forces to guard Anti-Aircraft sites until at least the late 1980s. To this day, the SKS carbine is used by some ceremonial Russian honor guards, much the same way the M14 Rifle is within the United States.

During the Cold War, the Soviet Union shared the SKS design and manufacturing details with its allies, and as a result, many variants of the SKS exist. Some variants use gas port controls, flip-up night sights, and prominent, muzzle-mounted grenade launchers (Yugoslav M59/66, possibly North Korean Type 63). In total, SKS rifles were manufactured by the Soviet Union, China, Yugoslavia, Albania, North Korea, North Vietnam, East Germany (Kar. S) and (Model 56) in Romania. Physically, all are very similar, although the NATO-specification 22mm grenade launcher of the Yugoslav version, and the more encompassing stock of the Albanian version are visually distinctive. Many smaller parts, most notably the sights and charging handles, were unique to different national production runs. A small quantity of SKS carbines manufactured in 1955–56 was produced in China with Russian parts, presumably as part of a technology sharing arrangement. The vast majority of Yugoslav M59 and M59/66s have elm, walnut and beech stocks. Russian SKS's had stocks of Arctic Birch (or "Russian Birch"), and the Chinese were of Catalpa wood ("Chu wood"). [6]

In terms of production numbers, the SKS was the ninth most produced self-loading rifle design in history. [7] While remaining far less ubiquitous than the AK-47, both original Soviet rifles and foreign variants can still be found today in civilian hands as well as in the arsenals of insurgent groups and paramilitary forces around the world. [7] The SKS has been circulated in up to 69 countries, both by national governments and non-state actors. [8] In 2016, it was still being widely circulated among civilians and non-state actors in at least five of those countries and remained in the reserve and training inventories of over 50 national armies. [8]

The SKS was to be a gap-filling firearm manufactured using the proven operating mechanism design of the 14.5×114mm PTRS-41 anti-tank rifle and using proven milled forging manufacturing techniques. This was to provide a fallback for the radically new and experimental design of the AK-47, in case it was unsuccessful. The original stamped receiver AK-47 had to be quickly redesigned to use a milled receiver which delayed production, and extended the SKS carbine's service life.

As soon as the SKS was brought into service in 1949, it was rendered obsolete for the Soviet military by the new AK-47, which was adopted by the Soviet military later that year. However, it found a longer second life in the service of other Soviet-aligned countries, in particular the Chinese army, who found it well suited to their own style of warfare, the "People's War" whose main actors were highly mobile, self-reliant guerrilla bands and rural militias protecting their own villages. In the philosophy of "the People's War", the emphasis was on long-range sniping, spoiling attacks, and ambushes. For this the Chinese army preferred its own domestic version of the SKS (the Type 56 carbine) to the AK pattern. [ citation needed ]

From its introduction in 1956, the Type 56/SKS remained the workhorse of the People's Liberation Army (PLA) for 30 years. In 1968, the army was briefly re-equipped with the unsuccessful Type 63 assault rifle, which had been intended to combine the sustained firepower of China's first AK-47 variant (the Type 56 assault rifle) with the precise semi-automatic fire of the SKS/Type 56 carbine and replace both of those separate rifles. However, by the mid-1970s, various problems were plaguing the unreliable Type 63 rifle. Troops clamored to be given back their carbines, which had been redistributed to local militia units, and the army staff abandoned the Type 63 and returned the Type 56 carbine (SKS) and Type 56 assault rifle (AK-47) back into service. The standard practice was for squad leaders and assistant squad leaders to carry an assault rifle and for most other soldiers to carry a carbine, so that a front-line infantry squad fielded two assault rifles, two light machine guns, and seven carbines.

However, after the beginning of China's 1979 border war with Vietnam, Chinese combat units found that the SKS carbine's capacity for long-range precision fire was of little use in the mountain jungles of the border region as a result those units were hastily re-equipped with assault rifles. Rifles of the AK family (including both the Chinese army’s Type 56 auto and the Vietnamese army’s AK-47s and AKM) are for structural reasons relatively inaccurate, [9] and because the Chinese army has historically favored precision fire (despite generally having firearms ill-suited to that task), the Sino-Vietnamese war directly hastened development of the PLA’s Type 81 assault rifle. [ citation needed ] By the time border conflict broke out again between China and Vietnam in 1983, the Chinese military had already been completely re-equipped with their more accurate, precise Type 81 assault rifle. [10] However the Type 56 carbine still remains in service with Chinese militias and reserve forces. The Type 56 also is in use as a drill and ceremony rifle.

Beginning in the 1960s, vast quantities of obsolete and redundant SKS carbines from military reserve stocks were donated by the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China to left-wing guerrilla movements around the world. [11] The increasing ubiquity of the SKS altered the dynamics of asymmetric warfare in developing nations and colonial territories, where most guerrillas had previously been armed with bolt-action rifles. [11] For example, the SKS served as one of the primary arms of the Viet Cong during the Vietnam War. [12] The weapon type was encountered so frequently by the United States Armed Forces in Vietnam that captured examples were used by opposing force (OPFOR) units during training exercises designed to simulate battlefield conditions there as early as 1969. [13] Captured SKS carbines were also prized as war trophies among individual US military personnel, and a number were brought back to the United States by returning veterans over the course of the Vietnam conflict. [14]

The SKS found particular favour in southern Africa, where it was utilised by a number of insurgent armies fighting to overthrow colonial rule in Angola, [15] Rhodesia (Zimbabwe), [16] and South West Africa (Namibia). [17] The National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) used the Type 56 Chinese variant during its long-running insurgency against the postcolonial Angolan government from 1975 to 2002. [18] The SKS was also used in small quantities by uMkhonto we Sizwe (MK), armed wing of the African National Congress (ANC) in South Africa. [19] SKS carbines captured from MK by the South African security forces were used to arm militias of the Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) during its internal power struggle with the ANC in the 1980s and 1990s. [20]

A number of Type 56 carbines were acquired and used alongside the more ubiquitous AK-pattern rifles by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) during the Troubles. [21] During the Dhofar Rebellion, SKS carbines were smuggled into Oman by sea, most likely by the Soviet bloc, to arm Popular Front for the Liberation of Oman (PFLO) insurgents there. [22] The Communist Party of Thailand (CPT) used the SKS during its insurgency until the early 1980s, when it ceased militant operations. [23] Cuban and Grenadian military forces used SKS carbines during the 1983 US invasion of Grenada. [24] The US Army captured 4,074 SKS carbines during the invasion, mostly from arms depots. [25]

By the early 1980s, the SKS had been almost entirely superseded in worldwide military service by the AK-47 and its derivatives. [26] The increasing proliferation of cheap AK-pattern rifles in most asymmetric conflicts also ended the popularity of the SKS as a standard guerrilla arm. [26] At that time, the majority of the remaining carbines still in active use were being issued to state-sponsored militias and other paramilitary formations for internal security duties. [26] State militia troops in the Ukraine continued to be issued with the SKS as late as 2014. [27] In 2016, SKS carbines remained in the reserve stockpiles of over 50 national armies, predominantly in sub-Saharan Africa and the former Soviet bloc. [8]

After World War II, the SKS design was licensed or sold to a number of the Soviet Union's allies, including China, Yugoslavia, Albania, North Korea, North Vietnam, East Germany, Romania, Bulgaria [28] and Poland. Most of these nations produced nearly identical variants, with the most common modifications being differing styles of bayonets and the 22 mm rifle grenade launcher commonly seen on Yugoslavian models.

Soviet Edit

Differences from the "baseline" late Russian Tula Armory/Izhevsk Armory SKS:

  • Variations (1949–1958): Early Spike-style bayonet (1949) instead of blade-style. Spring-return firing pin was present on early models, and they did not have chrome bores (1949 – early 1951). The gas block had three changes: The first production stage gas block, used from 1949 through early 1950, was squared-off at a 90-degree angle. The second gas block production stage was instead cut at a 45-degree angle, seen on late 1950 to 1951 rifles. The third and final gas block stage, from 1952 through to 1956, was curved inward slightly toward the action.
  • Honor Guard: All-chrome metal parts, with a lighter-colored wood stock.
  • OP-SKS. Many military surplus Soviet SKS were converted into hunting rifles by the Molot ("Hammer") factory in Vyatskiye Polyany (Russian: Вятско-Полянский машиностроительный завод «Молот», English: Vyatskiye Polyany Machine-Building Plant). These were labeled OP (OP = охотничье-промысловый > okhotnich'ye-promyslovyy > "commercial hunting (carbine)"). The OP-SKS continued to be manufactured into the 2000s. [29]

Chinese Edit

  • Type 56 (1956–today): Numerous minor tweaks, including lack of milling on the bolt carrier, partially or fully stamped (as opposed to milled) receivers, and differing types of thumb rest on the take down lever. The Chinese continually revised the SKS manufacturing process, so variation can be seen even between two examples from the same factory. All of the Type 56 carbine rifles have been removed from military service, except a few being used for ceremonial purposes and by local Chinese Militias. Type 56 carbines with serial numbers below 9,000,000 have the Russian-style blade-type folding bayonet, while those 9,000,000 and higher have a "spike" type folding bayonet. Some early examples are known as "Sino-Soviet", meaning they were produced by China, but with cooperation from Russian "advisers" who helped regulate the factories and provided the design specifications and perhaps even Soviet-manufactured parts. [30]Bangladesh Ordnance Factories produced Type 56 under license till 2006. [31]
  • Experimental stamped receiver: Very rare. A small number of Type 56 SKS rifles were manufactured with experimental stamped sheet metal receivers as a cost and weight saving measure but did not enter large scale production.
  • Honor Guard: Mostly, but not all, chromed metal parts. Does not generally have the lighter-colored stock as the Soviet Honor Guard variant.
  • Type 63, 68, 73, 81, 84: these rifles shared features from several East-Bloc rifles (SKS, AK-47, Dragunov). AK-47 style rotary bolt and detachable magazine. The Type 68 featured a stamped sheet-steel receiver. The Type 81 is an upgraded Type 68 with a three-round burst capability, some of which (Type 81-1) have a folding stock. The Type 84 (known as an SKK) returns to semi-auto fire only, is modified to accept AK-47 magazines, and has a shorter 16" paratrooper barrel. However, Chinese Type 84s could not accept AK mags without some handfitting, and the mags were serialized. In addition, AK mags don’t work with the SKS bolt-hold-open system, so the Type 84 used a button on top of the bolt carrier to lock it into place. [32]
  • Commercial production: Blonde wood ("Chu wood"/"Qiu wood") [33] stock instead of dark wood, spike bayonet instead of blade, bayonet retaining bolt replaced with a rivet. Sub-variants include the M21, "Cowboy's Companion", Hunter, Models D/M, Paratrooper, Sharpshooter, and Sporter.
    • Model D rifles used military style stocks and had bayonet lugs (although some were imported eliminated bayonet, and some examples eliminated the lug in order to meet changing US import restrictions).
    • Model M rifles had no bayonet lug and used either a thumb hole or Monte Carlo–style stock. Both Model D and M used AK-47 magazines and as a result had no bolt hold open feature on the rifle.

    Other European Edit

    • Romanian M56: Produced between 1957 and 1960. Typically, they are identical or nearly identical to the late Soviet model.
    • Polish SKS (ksS): Refurbished Soviet rifles. Polish laminated stocks lack storage area in back of stock for cleaning kit. A few hundred SKS's were given to Poland by the Soviet Union around 1954. While never adopted for use by combat units, the SKS is still in use in ceremonial units of the Polish Army, Air Force, Navy where they replaced SVT rifles. Honor guards of the Polish Police and Border Guard also use SKS carbines. In Polish service they are known as ksS which stands for karabin samopowtarzalny Simonowa, Simonov's semi-automatic rifle. These rifles since have been slowly replaced by the new Polish rifle design, the MSBS.
    • Yugoslavian PAP M59: Manufactured by Zastava Arms between 1959 and 1966. [34] Barrel is not chrome-lined. PAP stands for "Polu-automatska puška" (Semi-automatic rifle) and the rifle was nicknamed "Papovka". Otherwise this rifle is nearly identical to the Soviet version. Many were converted to the M59/66 variant during refurbishment.
      • Yugoslavian PAP M59/66: Produced between 1967 and 1989. Added 22 mm rifle grenade launcher which appears visually like a flash suppressor or muzzle brake on the end of the barrel. Front sight has a fold-up "ladder" for use in grenade sighting. To raise the grenade sight, the gas port must be manually blocked and the action must be manually cycled—rifle grenades must be fired with special blank cartridges, and this feature helps ensure that the gas pressure is not wasted on cycling the action. The gas port must be manually opened to again allow semi-automatic operation. [35] Barrel was not chrome-lined. Both the grenade launcher and grenade sight are NATO spec. Stock is typically made from beech wood.
      • Yugoslavian PAP M59/66A1: Same as above, except with the addition of flip up phosphorus or tritium night sights.

      Other Asian Edit

      • North Korean Type 63: [36] At least three separate models were made. One "standard" model with blade bayonet, and a second with a gas shutoff and a grenade launcher, similar to the M59/66. The North Korean grenade launcher was detachable from the muzzle and the gas shutoff was different from the Yugoslavian model, however. [37] A third model appears to have side-swinging bayonet. [38]
      • Vietnamese Type 1: Nearly identical to both the Soviet and early Chinese SKS. These are identified by a small star on the receiver with a 1 in the center. The barrel is chromed, as are many of the internal parts. It is unknown currently whether there are spiked bayonets or only bladed. The stock work is identical to more common SKS variants such as the Soviet and Chinese. These appear to have been either converted Soviet or early production models, or simply cloned from these rifles.
        • Vietnamese clone: The Viet Cong manufactured somewhat rudimentary copies of the SKS, which are sometimes seen with crude finish and obvious tool markings. [39]

        Tapco Edit

        SKS Tapco: It is a variant of SKS upgraded with Tapco Intrafuse SKS Stock System. [40]

          a machine-translated version of the Russian article.
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      • You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary accompanying your translation by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation. A model attribution edit summary Content in this edit is translated from the existing Russian Wikipedia article at [[:ru:SKS]] see its history for attribution.
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      • The following table lists accuracy statistics for an SKS rifle firing 57-N-231 steel core service ammunition. The statistics were computed under the Russian method for determining accuracy, which is more complex than Western methods which usually involve firing a group of shots and then measuring the overall diameter of the group. The Russian method differs in that after a group of shots is fired into the target, two circles are drawn, one for the maximum vertical dispersion of hits and one for the maximum horizontal dispersion of hits. Hits on the outer part of the target are disregarded, while only half of the hits on the inner part of the circles are counted (50% or R50), which significantly reduces the overall diameter of the groups. The vertical and horizontal measurements of the reduced groups are then used to measure accuracy. This circular error probable method used by the Russian and other European militaries cannot be converted and is not comparable to US military methods for determining rifle accuracy. When the R50 results are doubled the hit probability increases to 93.7%.

        • R50 means the closest 50 percent of the shot group will all be within a circle of the mentioned diameter.

        In general, this is an improvement with respect to firing accuracy to the AK-47 and the AKM. The vertical and horizontal mean (R50) deviations with service ammunition at 800 m (875 yd) for AK platforms are.

        SKS, AK-47, AKM, and AK-74 dispersion at 800 m (875 yd)
        Rifle Firing mode Vertical accuracy of fire (R50) Horizontal accuracy of fire (R50)
        SKS (1945) semi-automatic 38 cm (15.0 in) 29 cm (11.4 in)
        AK-47 (1949) semi-automatic 49 cm (19.3 in) 34 cm (13.4 in)
        AK-47 (1949) short burst 76 cm (29.9 in) 89 cm (35.0 in)
        AKM (1959) short burst 64 cm (25.2 in) 90 cm (35.4 in)
        AK-74 (1974) short burst 48 cm (18.9 in) 64 cm (25.2 in)

        In the more than 70 years of use worldwide, the SKS has seen use in conflicts all over the world.


        1968 Z28 Camaro Unrestored Original with only 39K miles

        You are bidding on a numbers matching 1968 Z28. From front to rear bumper, this Z28 retains all its original parts, not including tires, spark plug wires, (originals were retained) and upper radiator hose. The car was originally purchased at Ellis Brooks Chevrolet in San Francisco CA. in the summer of 1968. The Z28 has been a California car all its life until recently coming to Georgia. Over the life of the car, great efforts have been exhausted to keeping all the original parts with this car, even down to the original tower radiator hose clamps.

        This Z28 has 39,851 original miles and is unmolested. Some of the factory options are as follows: Rally Sport, custom interior, console, power steering, sport mirror, AM/FM radio. It has factory 4.10 rear end and a M21 Transmission.

        The original, "born with”, engine has never been out of the car and the performance is excellent. Also, the car has its original M21 transmission along with its original Muncie shifter, which is very rare because most were changed during a Z28s life. The original "BV" coded (4.10) rear end is also with the car.

        Z28 still retains its ORIGINAL Rally Green paint and is in excellent condition. The car retains all its original body panels and has never seen any accidents and is completely rust free. This Z28 is fully documented with Protect O Plate, all books/manuals and original keys. The complete history is documented back to the original dealership. Also, the original California Black Plates and several pieces of original dealer information are still with the car.

        The interior is all original and in fantastic condition. Seats, carpet, steering wheel, radio (the entire interior) are all original and in mint condition showing barely any wear. Car performs flawlessly and has excellent performance. The exhaust, tailpipes and muffler hangersare the same ones that were on the car when it left the factory. Exhaust manifolds have never been removed (French locks retained). All the glass is original, even the windshield, as is the date coded mirror. All the wheels are dated and are the ones that were on the car when the car left the factory. Paint, beauty bands and center caps are excellent and original. Original spare and tire are still with the car. I was limited to how many pictures I could list on ebay. If there is something you want to see, please don't hesitate to ask or reach out to me for any questions you may have.

        Seven, Seven, Zero-Three, Six, One-Three, One, Two, Seven

        All funds must clear bank before Georgia title is released. Car is for sale locally, so I reserve the right to send the auction early.

        Below is a list of the important date coded items:

        337090= Sequence Number or 337090th car built for 1968 model year.

        04C= Body Build Date 3rd week of April K177= 11th day of the month, 177th body sequence

        68-12437= 1968, 8 cyl. 2 dr. coupe LOS= Los Angeles 35937= Fisher Body Sequence

        TR 714= Black Custom Interior J-J =Rally Green Paint, no vinyl top

        VO328MO= Flint, Michigan built March 28th, 1968 302/290 with manual 4 speed Transmission

        Cast Date= C118 March 11, 1968

        Block Cast Number= 3914678 302/290 4 bolt main

        Heads= LH 3917291 J267/ RH 3917291 J277 (October 26th and 27th 1967)

        Carburetor= 3923289 DZ List 4053 833, 3rd week of March 1968 Holley 4bbl for 302

        Distributor=1111467 8BB February 8, 1968

        Alternator= 1100814 8D18 April 18, 1968

        Starter= 1108367 8C28 March 28, 1968

        Exhaust Manifolds= RH 3872730, LH 3892683

        Thermostat Housing= 3827369 B4

        Transmission= 18L337090 VIN number P8C20 P=Muncie Transmission 8=1968 C20= March 20th, 1968

        Master Cylinder= 5460346 WT

        Wheels= K18 3-20 DF, K18 3-21 DF, K18 3-20 DF, K18 3-20 DF March 20th and March 21st 1968

        Axle= BV 1227 G1E BV=4.10, 1227= December 27th 1967, G1= Chevrolet Gear and Axle 1st shift E=Eaton Positraction


        Jules Stauffer

        Jules Stauffer married Anne Rogers Blewitt from Bristol on 9 December 1837 in London at the parish church in Bloomsbury. Jules must have been resident in England, even if not permanently, for long enough before this to meet and fall in love with an English woman, and was presumably acting as representative and import agent for watches made in the Stauffer factory. This shows that the London office must have been set up within a few years after the company was founded in Switzerland in 1830.

        The 1851 Census shows Jules and Anne Stauffer living at Courland House, Wandsworth Road, Clapham. Jules is aged 42, his occupation described as a Watch Manufacturer born in Switzerland. For some reason the census enumerator has added "Retired" to the occupation after the entry was first written. The family has three children aged 7, 5 and 3, and a servant. On 3 January 1857 Jules Stauffer was recorded in The Times as speaking at a meeting of Swiss nationals in London. Jules and Ann had at least 6 children Julius Blewitt, Edward Reynold, Evelina, Marie Louise, Josephine, and Victoria Ann. The eldest son, Julius Blewitt, was born in 1840 and emigrated to America in 1869.

        Jules Stauffer's death on 4 May 1884 in Brussels aged 76 was reported in The Times. His addresses were given as No 12 Old Jewry Chambers and Clapham, Surrey. Evidently none of Jules' children entered the business and so his retirement in 1869 was the end of the Stauffer family involvement in Stauffer, Son & Co.


        British Import Hallmarks from 1907

        After 1 June 1907 all gold and silver watches imported into Britain were required to be assayed and hallmarked in a British assay office. They were stamped with new hallmarks that were intended to show that the item was imported and not of British manufacture. The picture here shows a set of London import hallmarks for silver. NB: For clarity this picture shows only the three assay office marks, the town mark, standard mark and date letter. It does not include the sponsor's mark, but a British hallmark must have all four marks, it is not complete and legal without a sponsor's mark.

        Because the date letter punches were changed when new wardens were elected each year, which took place part way through the year in May of June, hallmark date letters span two calendar years. This is not noted in most tables of hallmarks, which only show the year when the punch was first used. But please remember that a table entry of, for example, “1914” really means 1914 to 1915.

        The zodiac symbol of Leo ♌ was used to show that the item was imported and assayed and hallmarked in the London Assay Office, distinguishing it from native British silver items that continued to be stamped with the leopard's head. The symbol of Leo was not very well represented by the punch and, for some reason lost in the mists of time, was at first struck upside down as shown here. This was not corrected until 1950, from when the Leo symbol was stamped the correct way up.

        The mark ·925 in an oval shield was used on imported sterling silver instead of the traditional lion passant, similarly a decimal number in an oval shield was used to represent the fineness of Britannia silver ·9584.

        The fineness of the legal standards of gold were shown in carats and decimals, as illustrated the picture of the import mark for nine carat gold. The first figure is a nine on its side, not a six. The ·375 is the decimal equivalent of nine carat: 9 / 24 = 0.375. The other legal standards for gold were represented similarly: (22 ·916), (20 ·833), (18 ·75), (15 ·625), (14 ·583) and (12 ·5).

        In the same way that the symbol of Leo was introduced as a new town mark for the London Assay Office to use on imported items, other British assay offices used different town marks for imported items. Decimal fineness marks were used on imported gold as well as silver in place of the traditional British symbols. The date letters used on imported items were the same as those used on native items, and each assay office continued with its own unique sequence of date letters.

        To go to my page about British import hallmarks click on this link: British import hallmarks .


        How to Identify a Waltham Pocket Watch

        Waltham pocket watches have been around for more than 150 years and are a collector's item. They were made between 1851 and 1957 in Waltham, Massachusetts. Like any other collector's items, the oldest and rarest pieces are the most valuable, so it is important to know as much information as you can about a watch before buying or selling it. It is fairly simple to confirm a watch is a Waltham pocket watch and to identify the model and manufacturing date.

        Identify the type of pocket watch. There are three basic types. A hunting case pocket watch has a closed case that goes over the face of the watch. An open face pocket watch has no cover over the face and it winds at the 12 o'clock position. A sidewinder pocket watch has no cover over the face and it winds at 3 o'clock.

        Open the back cover of the watch with your fingernail and look for identifying names -- a magnifying glass or loupe may be necessary. A Waltham pocket watch will have "A.W.W.Co." and "Waltham, Mass." on the movement, which is the inner workings of the pocket watch. This will also include the grade of the watch. For instance, a Riverside grade watch will have "A.W.W.Co. Riverside Waltham, Mass." on the movement.

        Write down the serial number. This is also on the movement and can be used to date the watch.

        Look up production dates online, on sites like Oldwatch.com. Corresponding years and serial numbers will be listed. If the serial number is between two dates, it was made in the earlier date.

        If your watch has a cover, look on the inside. "AWco" written on the inside of the cover means the cover was also made by Waltham. A "K" with a number means the case is made of gold, and the number indicates how many carats it is. For instance, "K18" means the case is made out of 18-carat gold.


        15cm K18 Seen From Rear - History

        Seven Hills Motorcars is proud to offer this beautiful numbers matching 1980 Corvette in excellent condition with a 4-Speed manual transmission and only 74,185 original miles. This Corvette looks fantastic, runs great, and is an excellent driver. The 4-Speed manual transmission is exceptionally rare in a late C3 Corvette. The manual transmission examples are highly desirable and draw a good premium over a standard 1980 Corvette with an automatic transmission. The Copper over Black Leather interior is a beautiful and unique color combination that looks stunning on the car.

        This Corvette is "Numbers Matching" meaning the engine and transmission in the car are the correct and original units that were installed in the car new at the factory in 1980. The last six digits of the VIN, 440185, are stamped on the engine pad, which is pictured in this ad, and the engine is original to the car. The transmission is also original with the last six digits of the VIN stamped on the main case and pictured.

        This is an excellent opportunity to own a classic Corvette that is ready to be used and enjoyed at an unbeatable value. One could easily buy this car now and sell it for more than the purchase price in years to come as the market on the 1980 and 1981 Corvettes is strong right now and on the rise. In our experience the 1980 and 1981 model years draw a good premium over other late C3 Corvettes this is especially true for very low mileage and manual transmission examples like this car. The low original mileage is verified not only by the condition of the car, but also the clear Ohio title, pictured in this ad, showing the mileage as "Actual." Please peruse all of the photos, the extensive list of numbers, video, and information to get a true sense of how nice, clean, and original this Corvette really is.

        As a side note, this Corvette is not a dealer auction vehicle. We hand pick each car after careful inspection. Our Corvettes come from owners who expect their car to go to someone that will give the vehicle the same care and attention as they did. We invite and encourage you to examine the car in person or have the car inspected. Please take the time to scrutinize each picture. We photograph each vehicle to the greatest extent so you can feel confident about your purchase. If you have a question about the Corvette, just give us a call.

        Exterior

        The Copper exterior is in excellent nice driver condition. As one can see in the photos the finish has a terrific gloss, deep shine, and smooth finish. Both doors open and shut nicely. The N90 aluminum wheels are in beautiful condition with a brilliant finish and no curb rash. The General raised white letter tires are literally brand new with less than 20 miles on them. They are correctly sized 225/70R15. There are no major imperfections that have been intentionally excluded from the photos. There are some small touch ups, very tiny blemishes, and hairline cracks that were too small to show up in the pictures, but nothing that is really noticeable from about five or ten feet away. This Corvette has absolutely no rust issues. As one can see in the many photos of the underside of the car, this car is exceptionally clean underneath. The frame is totally solid with no rust around the "key hole" area in front of the rear tire and we have seen no evidence of corrosion around the windshield, which are the two most notorious spots for rust on a C3 Corvette. We have included specific photos of the areas most prone to rust to show how nice this car looks.

        Please note that almost all of the glass on this Corvette, both pieces of door glass and the rear window are all date coded and original as each piece predates the car's body build date of August 18, 1980 (K18). Original glass is a good indication that this car has had no major accident history and never sustained significant damage.

        Interior

        The Black Leather interior in this Corvette is in outstanding condition. The seats are in excellent shape and look as good in person as they do in the photos with just one small spot of wear in the typical area on the bolster where the driver gets in and out. The gauge faces are crisp and clean and the lenses are clear. The carpet is also in great condition with no stains, holes, or tears. This includes the rear carpet, which is often neglected. The dash and console look great with no cracks or sun fading. The door panels are in nice shape overall and the door pull are solid and in tact. The jack and jack handle are still with the car, stored correctly behind the passenger seat. The original spare is still with the car. This Corvette has never been smoked in there are no burns marks and no aroma of cigarettes.

        Corvette interiors from this era are not known to wear well and the excellent condition of this interior is a huge testament to the meticulous care and attention this car has received throughout its life and another great verification of the low original mileage.

        Mechanical

        This Corvette seems to be in very good mechanical condition. The car starts right away every time, runs well, and idles well. It drives great and feels nice on the road and at highway speeds. In the video in this ad one can observe the car accelerating on the highway up to about 70mph, shifting through all the gears, braking to stoplight, and going through some curves. Please note that there are no vibrations or strange noises and the car performs quite well overall. The transmission was just completely rebuilt this year. The clutch feels good. The brakes are responsive and do not pull to one side or the other. This Corvette has plenty of power and is quite fast. Also, the engine compartment is beautifully clean and detailed as one can see in the photos.

        The horn works as do all the exterior lights, interior lights, wipers, power windows, and indicators. The blower for the heater and a/c works on all speeds. The a/c itself works and blows cold. One can see the a/c compressor clicking on and engaging properly in the video. All of the gauges work with the obvious exception of the clock. The vacuum system for the headlights works correctly. Also, the headlights go up properly with either the headlight switch or vacuum override switch. Their complete operation from both switches can be viewed in the video below. The car now has a true dual exhaust system with no catalytic converter and a very healthy exhaust note as one can hear in the video. Not enough can be said as to how much of a pleasure it is to drive this car, especially with the 4-speed manual transmission and the T-tops out on a beautiful day.

        Overall Condition

        Overall, this 1980 Corvette is in magnificent driver condition. The 4-Speed manual transmission, the low original mileage, and the excellent overall condition make this car especially important and hard to duplicate. This Corvette always gets a ton of attention driving down the road. It is apparent that the vehicle has been well taken care of by its previous owners. The prices of C3 Corvettes have increased considerably over the past several years. They are secure and wise investments for a collector. 4-Speed examples like this car always draw a premium over the automatic transmission cars. One could easily enjoy this vehicle for several years and sell it for more than the purchase price with minimal effort.

        Thank you for looking and please do not hesitate to email or call with any questions.

        VIN
        1Z878AS440185
        The first digit, "1," indicated the Chevrolet division of GM. The "Z" is the series, Corvette. The "87" is the body style, 2-door sport coupe. The fifth digit is the engine, 8, correct for an L48 car. The sixth digit, "A," indicates the model year, 1980. The "S" is the plant where the car was produced, St. Louis. The last five digits are a sequence number so this is the 40,185th Corvette made for 1980.

        Body Build Date
        K18
        "K" corresponds to August and "18" is the eighteenth day of the month meaning this Corvette's body build date is August 18, 1980.

        Engine Code
        V0717
        "V" means the engine was build in the Flint, MI plant. The "07" is the seventh month of year and the "17" is the seventeenth day of the month meaning the engine was assembled on July 17th, 1980. This is correct as it precedes the build date of the car.

        Suffix Code
        ZAM
        This means the motor was intended for a 1980 L48 Corvette with a manual transmission, which is correct for this car.

        Engine VIN Stamp
        440185
        The last 6 digits of the car's VIN, 440185, are stamped on the engine pad and pictured below, meaning this engine is original to this car.

        Engine Block Casting Number
        14010207
        The engine block has the correct 14010207 casting number for a 1980 Corvette.

        Engine Block Casting Date
        F 1 20
        "F" is June, "12" is the twelvth day of the month, and "0" is the last digit of the calendar year so the engine block was cast on June 12th, 1980.

        Intake Manifold Casting Number
        14014432
        The intake manifold has a correct 14014432 casting number.

        Distributor
        1103287
        The distributor is original and correct for an L48 Corvette with a manual transmission with a 1103287 stamping.

        Transmission Casting Number
        13-04-065-903
        The main case of the transmission has a 13-04-065-903 casting number.

        Transmission Tail Housing Casting Number
        13-04-066-905
        The tail housing of the transmission has a 13-04-066-905 casting number.

        Transmission Side Cover Casting Number
        13-04-097-901
        The side cover of the transmission has a 13-04-097-901 casting number.

        Transmission Date Code
        WH050
        The transmission has the correct date code of WH050 stamped on the main case of the transmission.

        Transmission VIN Stamping
        440185
        The last 6 digits of the car's VIN, 440185, are stamped on the main case of the transmission and pictured below meaning this transmission is original to this car.

        Clutch Housing
        464697
        The clutch housing has the correct 464697 stamping.

        Carburetor
        17080207
        The Carburetor is correct and original for a 1980 Corvette with 17080207 stamped on the housing.

        Carburetor Date Code
        3449
        The "344" is the 344th day of the year since January 1st of 1979, and the "9" is the last digit of the calendar year 1979, meaning the carburetor was made on December 10th, 1979.

        Left Exhaust Manifold Casting Number
        3932481
        The exhaust manifold is correct and original with a 3932481 stamping.

        Right Exhaust Manifold Casting Number
        3932481
        The exhaust manifold is correct and original with a 3932481 stamping.

        Driver's Window
        VJ
        "V" is December and "J" is 1978 so this window is original, made in December of 1978. This is correct as it predates the build date of the car.

        Passenger Window
        XZ
        "X" is February and "Z" is 1980 so this window is original, made in February of 1980. This is correct as it predates the build date of the car.

        Rear Window
        UZ
        "U" is July and "Z" is 1980 so this window is original, made in July of 1980. This is correct as it predates the build date of the car.


        How to Identify Vintage Pocket Watches

        Identifying a vintage pocket watch, with few exceptions, is easy and requires few or no tools. Vintage pocket watches from the late 19th century through the 1950s are well marked with the watchmaker’s logo embossed on the dial and engraved on the movement. Often the watchmaker’s name will also be engraved on the inside of the case back. However, some Swiss watchmakers imported unassembled watches with no markings to the U.S. to be assembled and sold by independent sellers or department stores. These watches are difficult, if not impossible, to identify.

        Examine the top portion of the dial of the vintage pocket watch. Most vintage pocket watches have the manufacturer’s logo embossed on the dial. Watchmakers Hamilton, Elgin, Waltham, Illinois, International Watch Co. and most others have distinctive logos or trademarks.

        Examine the dial below the hands post with the loupe. It may have “17 Jewels” or a different number of jewels embossed. A good quality vintage pocket watch will have a minimum of 15 jewels. Jewels are lubricated friction points where the spring-loaded mechanism and its gears, called a movement, move to operate the watch.

        Insert the case blade under the lip of a snap-back vintage pocket watch and pry it open. Use the palm of your hand or a watchmaker’s sticky ball to rotate a screw-down case back counterclockwise to remove it from the case, according to Thewatchguy.homestead.com.

        Use the loupe to examine the movement. The watchmaker’s name should appear on the bridge, a flat sheet of metal over the movement. Below or near the name is a serial number usually five to nine digits long. Record the number. A smaller number, ranging from two to four digits, may also be engraved. The serial number will help identify the year of manufacture. The smaller number is the caliber, or size, of the movement.

        Examine the inside of the case back. It should identify the type of metal used for the case and case back, such as “18k” for gold or “999” for silver. The watchmaker’s name or the name of an independent case maker, may be engraved.

        Compare the manufacturer’s name, serial number and movement caliber with published lists from the manufacturer. For example, a Waltham pocket watch with serial numbers between 29,100,000 and 29,399,000 was manufactured in 1936. The caliber of movement could be used over several years or even decades. Many watch repairpersons keep pocket watch data to order parts. Lists from many pocket watch manufacturers, even those no longer existing, are published online.


        Why Use a Hidden GPS Tracker?

        Like so many other forms of technology, GPS trackers have both legitimate and less savory uses. Law enforcement agencies often use these devices, with an appropriate warrant, as do private investigators.

        There are also a number of reasons that vehicle owners might want to use some type of vehicle tracking system, although most of them don’t call for hiding the device.

        Common uses for GPS car trackers include:

        • Fleet management
        • Delivery and taxi dispatch
        • Keeping tabs on your minor teen
        • Helping you find where you parked
        • Theft recovery

        GPS trackers designed for use in cars can be found in big box stores like Walmart, electronics stores like Best Buy, and specialty stores that cater to private investigators. They can also be purchased online at virtually any retailer that deals in electronics like GPS devices and surveillance equipment.


        Watch the video: 15 cm German Heavy Field Howitzer model 18 artillery gun walk around